Table 1

HFSA-Recommended Elements of Heart Failure Disease Management Programs

1Comprehensive education and counseling individualized to the patient and patients’ environment
2Promotion of self-care behaviors including potentially self-titration of diuretic dosing (with family member/health care provider assistance)
3Emphasis on behavioral strategies to ensure adequate compliance
4Adequate follow-up after hospital discharge or clinical instability (preferably within the first 7 days after event)
5Optimization of oral therapy especially evidence-based therapy
6Increased access to health care providers
7Early attention to signs and symptoms of fluid overload
8Assistance with financial and social concerns

HFSA = Heart Failure Society of America.