Table 1

Clinical Characteristics of Patients With HFmrEF Compared With Those of Patients With HFrEF and HFpEF

HFrEF (n = 15,716)HFmrEF (n = 5,626)HFpEF (n = 18,897)HFrEF (n = 20,118)HFmrEF (n = 7,321)HFpEF (n = 10,072)HFrEF (n = 402)HFmrEF (n = 108)HFpEF (n = 112)HFrEF (n = 730)HFmrEF (n = 596)HFpEF (n = 2,154)
Demographic characteristics
 Age, yrs79.
 Male, %60.049.532.762.
 BMI, kg/m225.726.527.422.722.823.2
Comorbidities, %
 Atrial fibrillation36.140.240.628.
  Insulin treated15.917.817.515.018.016.0
  Non-insulin treated23.423.723.
 Peripheral vascular disease14.515.513.318.918.525.0
 Coronary artery disease58.056.744.973.9§79.6§63.4§
 Previous MI24.919.812.550.245.431.339.341.126.9
 Previous PCI15.415.
 Previous CABG17.617.111.113.916.711.610.18.69.6
 Stroke or TIA15.817.117.414.915.718.818.922.121.9
  No dialysis18.418.116.3
Laboratory values, mean
 Sodium, mEq/l138.0138.0138.0137.7137.9137.8
 BUN, mg/dl26.
 Creatinine, mg/dl1.
 BNP, pg/ml1,197.0790.0561.01,170.0757.0537.0216.0164.5126.9
 Hemoglobin, g/dl12.211.711.512.511.911.813.413.012.8
 Albumin, g/dl3.
 Troponin, ng/dl0.
 HbA1c, %
Medications, %
 ACE inhibitors40.335.631.845.
 Aldosterone antagonist11.76.85.410.
 Loop diuretic61.457.857.
 Calcium channel blocker12.220.729.25.0#9.0#11.0#

Values are n. Italicized numbers denote median values.

BMI = body mass index; BNP = B-type natriuretic peptide; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting; CHART-2 = Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District-2; CKD = chronic kidney disease; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM = diabetes mellitus; GWTG-HF = Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure Registry; HbA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin; HFmrEF = heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction; HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; MI = myocardial infarction; OPTIMIZE-HF = Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; TIA = transient ischemic attack; TIME-CHF = Trial of Intensified Versus Standard Medical Therapy in Elderly Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

  • Atrial fibrillation or flutter.

  • Atrial arrhythmias.

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

  • § Atherosclerosis.

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).

  • Any diuretic.

  • # Amlodipine.