Table 1

Clinical Characteristics of Patients With HFmrEF Compared With Those of Patients With HFrEF and HFpEF

GWTG-HF (8)OPTIMIZE-HF (2)TIME-CHF (14)CHART-2 (11)
HFrEF (n = 15,716)HFmrEF (n = 5,626)HFpEF (n = 18,897)HFrEF (n = 20,118)HFmrEF (n = 7,321)HFpEF (n = 10,072)HFrEF (n = 402)HFmrEF (n = 108)HFpEF (n = 112)HFrEF (n = 730)HFmrEF (n = 596)HFpEF (n = 2,154)
Demographic characteristics
 Age, yrs79.081.082.070.474.375.675.579.080.266.969.071.7
 Male, %60.049.532.762.048.032.067.453.728.076.771.860.8
 BMI, kg/m225.726.527.422.722.823.2
Comorbidities, %
 Atrial fibrillation36.140.240.628.033.032.030.039.642.938.143.551.8
 COPD26.729.631.420.621.316.1
 DM33.639.839.338.136.133.8
  Insulin treated15.917.817.515.018.016.0
  Non-insulin treated23.423.723.124.026.025.0
 Hyperlipidemia48.148.245.334.035.031.052.248.136.682.280.278.8
 Hypertension73.177.981.366.074.077.068.982.485.784.789.891.2
 Peripheral vascular disease14.515.513.318.918.525.0
 Coronary artery disease58.056.744.973.9§79.6§63.4§
 Previous MI24.919.812.550.245.431.339.341.126.9
 Previous PCI15.415.78.029.234.526.0
 Previous CABG17.617.111.113.916.711.610.18.69.6
 Stroke or TIA15.817.117.414.915.718.818.922.121.9
 Anemia16.021.322.423.638.034.8
 CKD54.063.961.6
  No dialysis18.418.116.3
  Dialysis2.53.03.3
 Depression8.810.011.514.213.07.1
 Smoking11.28.77.663.560.241.1
 Cancer12.716.715.211.513.315.8
Laboratory values, mean
 Sodium, mEq/l138.0138.0138.0137.7137.9137.8
 BUN, mg/dl26.025.025.021.921.120.5
 Creatinine, mg/dl1.41.31.31.41.31.21.21.11.0
 BNP, pg/ml1,197.0790.0561.01,170.0757.0537.0216.0164.5126.9
 Hemoglobin, g/dl12.211.711.512.511.911.813.413.012.8
 Albumin, g/dl3.43.43.44.03.94.0
 Troponin, ng/dl0.060.050.050.10.10.1
 HbA1c, %6.96.86.7
Medications, %
 ACE inhibitors40.335.631.845.038.034.095.590.786.657.751.042.2
 ARB14.616.217.411.012.014.026.729.034.1
 Beta-blocker46.945.545.356.054.050.079.479.078.069.663.846.4
 Aldosterone antagonist11.76.85.410.06.04.042.533.325.043.729.319.4
 Nitrate19.018.815.422.023.020.027.932.433.0
 Hydralazine5.34.95.63.03.03.0
 Digoxin20.914.512.830.019.015.021.113.912.5
 Loop diuretic61.457.857.063.059.057.093.589.891.176.263.352.2
 Antiarrhythmic11.49.07.613.010.08.0
 Aspirin50.447.243.442.041.036.0
 Calcium channel blocker12.220.729.25.0#9.0#11.0#18.127.044.2
 Statin48.548.143.440.041.037.038.839.633.4

Values are n. Italicized numbers denote median values.

BMI = body mass index; BNP = B-type natriuretic peptide; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting; CHART-2 = Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District-2; CKD = chronic kidney disease; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM = diabetes mellitus; GWTG-HF = Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure Registry; HbA1c = glycosylated hemoglobin; HFmrEF = heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction; HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; MI = myocardial infarction; OPTIMIZE-HF = Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; TIA = transient ischemic attack; TIME-CHF = Trial of Intensified Versus Standard Medical Therapy in Elderly Patients With Congestive Heart Failure.

  • Atrial fibrillation or flutter.

  • Atrial arrhythmias.

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

  • § Atherosclerosis.

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).

  • Any diuretic.

  • # Amlodipine.