Table 1

Characteristics of Patients Within the TOPCAT Americas Population, Presented as Total Cohort and by Tertile of Baseline Heart Rate

Total (N = 1,767)Lower Tertile (<63 beats/min)Middle Tertile (64–71 beats/min)Upper Tertile (>72 beats/min)p Value
Median baseline HR (beats/min)68 (60 to 75)59 (54 to 60)68 (65 to 70)78 (74 to 84)
Mean baseline HR (beats/min)68 ± 1157 ± 567 ± 280 ± 8
Age (yrs)72 (64 to 79)73 (65 to 80)73 (65 to 80)71 (63 to 79)0.006
Female882 (50)264 (47)248 (49)310 (54)0.03
NYHA functional class III/IV620 (35)183 (32)177 (35)259 (38)0.14
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea255 (14.4)76 (14)75 (15)104 (15)0.69
Chest radiography with congestion582 (33)188 (33)174 (34)219 (32)0.72
LVEF (%)58 ± 859 ± 858 ± 858 ± 80.13
HR at any time (beats/min)68 (61 to 76)NANANA
ΔHR (beats/min)0 (−6 to 6)NANANA
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 Systolic129 (118 to 138)130 (118 to 140)130 (118 to 139)128 (117 to 138)0.28
 Diastolic70 (62 to 80)69 (60 to 78)70 (63 to 80)74 (64 to 81)<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)34 ± 833 ± 734 ± 835 ± 90.001
Medical history
 Hospitalization for CHF976 (72)287 (51)278 (54)409 (60)0.008
 Myocardial infarction893 (20)143 (25)105 (21)111 (16)0.001
 Stroke158 (9)49 (9)49 (10)60 (9)0.83
 Diabetes mellitus788 (45)235 (42)232 (46)320 (47)0.19
 Hypertension1,588 (90)517 (92)451 (88)618 (90)0.24
 Atrial fibrillation743 (42)233 (41)211 (41)297 (43)0.47
 Pacemaker242 (14)64 (11)79 (16)99 (14)0.11
 Implantable defibrillator42 (2)8 (1)18 (4)16 (2)0.08
 PCI344 (20)135 (24)103 (20)106 (15)<0.001
 CABG336 (19)120 (23)96 (19)141 (16)0.007
 Current smoker117 (7)31 (6)31 (6)55 (8)0.17
 Previous cancer69 (4)23 (4)14 (3)30 (4)0.32
 Left ventricular hypertrophy167 (9)54 (10)50 (10)63 (9)0.93
 Peripheral artery disease207 (12)76 (14)64 (13)67 (10)0.11
Medical treatment at randomization
 ACE inhibitor891 (51)290 (51)265 (52)334 (49)0.46
 Angiotensin receptor blocker698 (20.3)188 (33)157 (31)206 (30)0.42
 Beta-blocker1,387 (79)461 (82)412 (81)513 (75)0.004
 Spironolactone886 (51)291 (52)257 (50)336 (49)0.66
 Calcium antagonist682 (39)240 (43)207 (41)233 (34)0.004
 Oral anticoagulant agent592 (34)190 (34)162 (32)240 (35)0.50
 Diuretic agent1,573 (89)493 (87)450 (88)627 (91)0.06

Values are median (interquartile range), mean ± SD, or n (%).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; CABG = coronary artery bypass grafting; CHF = congestive heart failure; ΔHR = change in heart rate from the preceding visit; HR = heart rate; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NA = not applicable; PCI = percutaneous coronary intervention; NYHA = New York Heart Association; TOPCAT = Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist.