Table 2

Number of Events, Event Rate, and Adjusted Hazard Ratio with 95% Confidence Interval per 5 beats/min Increase in Baseline Heart Rate, Heart Rate at Any Visit, and Change in Heart Rate From Preceding Visit as Continuous Covariates and Outcomes

EventsEvent Rate (95% CI)Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
Baseline HRp ValueHR at Any Visitp ValueΔHRp Value
All-cause mortality3857.1 (6.8–7.8)1.12 (1.07–1.18)<0.0011.17 (1.12–1.22)<0.0011.17 (1.12–1.22)<0.001
CV death or hospitalization for HF or aborted cardiac arrest52211.5 (10.5–12.5)1.08 (1.04–1.12)0.0011.11 (1.07–1.14)<0.0011.09 (1.05–1.14)<0.001
CV death2234.3 (3.7–4.9)1.12 (1.06–1.20)<0.0011.14 (0.98–1.20)<0.0011.14 (0.97–1.21)<0.001
Hospitalization for HF4008.8 (7.9–9.7)1.06 (1.01–1.11)0.011.13 (1.09–1.18)<0.0011.11 (1.06–1.16)<0.001
Non-CV death1623.0 (2.6–3.5)1.123 (1.04–1.21)0.0021.20 (1.14–1.27)<0.0011.20 (1.14–1.28)<0.001
Fatal and nonfatal MI941.8 (1.5–2.3)0.97 (0.87–1.07)0.5151.01 (0.91–1.12)0.861.02 (0.91–1.14)0.34
Fatal and nonfatal stroke771.5 (1.2–1.9)1.01 (0.90–1.12)0.9051.11 (1.00–1.22)0.0311.11 (0.99–1.24)0.052

Models covariates: age, sex, previous hospitalization for heart failure, previous MI, and beta-blocker and rate-limiting calcium channel blocker dose. Time-updated diastolic blood pressure, weight. For change in HR from the previous visit, the previous visit HR was included in the model, and for HR at any time, baseline HR was included in the model. For all reported hazard ratios, no significant violations of the proportional hazards assumption were detected (p > 0.05 for all).

CI = confidence interval; CV = cardiovascular; ΔHR = change in heart rate from the preceding visit; HF = heart failure; HR = heart rate; MI = myocardial infarction.

  • Event rate per 100 patient-yrs.