Table 1

Baseline Characteristics

Healthy SubjectsHFrEF PatientsHFpEF Patients
Age, yrs33 ± 1665 ± 1271 ± 6
Weight, kg83.8 ± 12.584.4 ± 15.988.2 ± 11.3
BSA, m22.0 ± 0.22.0 ± 0.22.0 ± 0.2
Male50%88%30%
Ischemic CMP0%83%10%
MAP, mm Hg81 ± 578 ± 1083 ± 14
Heart rate, beats/min65 ± 1363 ± 1071 ± 14
Hypertension17%50%80%
Diabetes0%28%30%
Laboratory values
 Hemoglobin, g/dl13.8 ± 1.513.5 ± 1.312.9 ± 0.8
 Hematocrit, %41 ± 440 ± 438 ± 2
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m298 ± 2764 ± 2662 ± 21
 NT-proBNP, ng/l46 (16–75)670 (225–1,383)344 (116–1,230)
Echocardiographic values
 Left ventricular ejection fraction, %63 ± 1036 ± 1057 ± 5
 Left atrial volume/BSA, ml/m218 ± 526 ± 750 ± 15
 Left ventricular end-systolic volume, ml41 ± 18110 ± 4550 ± 24
 Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, ml98 ± 38170 ± 5596 ± 36
 Stroke volume, ml58 ± 2460 ± 1946 ± 16
 TAPSE, mm20 ± 219 ± 525 ± 3
 RVSP, mm Hg15 ± 1030 ± 1024 ± 14
 Mitral regurgitation (grade), 0/1–2/3–4100%/0%/0%73%/25%/2%60%/40%/0%
 Tricuspid regurgitation, 0/1–2/3–4100%/0%/0%88%/12%/0%70%/30%/0%
 E/A1.4 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.81.2 ± 0.4
 E/E′6 ± 212 ± 613 ± 2
 IVC maximum diameter, mm17 ± 315 ± 517 ± 4
 Estimated CVP, mm Hg6 ± 37 ± 27 ± 2
 Low estimated CVP50%25%20%
 Intermediate estimated CVP50%75%80%
 Elevated estimated CVP000
Intrarenal Doppler ultrasonography
 RI0.5 ± 0.10.6 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.1
 VII0.2 ± 0.20.4 ± 0.30.4 ± 0.3
 Continuous venous flow pattern100%70%60%
Maintenance therapy
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker-use17%88%70%
 Beta-adrenergic antagonist use0%95%90%
 Mineralocorticoid receptor use17%83%40%
 Loop diuretic use0%65%30%

Values are mean ± SD, %, or median (interquartile range).

BSA = body surface area; CMP = cardiomyopahty; CVP = central venous pressure; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; MAP = mean arterial pressure; NT-proBNP = N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide; RI = resistance index; RVSP = right ventricular systolic pressure; TAPSE = tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; VII = venous impedance index.