Table 3

Biomarker Levels at Admission

HFrEF (n = 607)HFmrEF (n = 128)HFpEF (n = 108)p Valuep Valuep Value for Trendp Value for Trend
Inflammation/immune system
 WBC (× 109/l)7.6 (6.2–9.2)7.3 (6.3–8.8)7.4 (6.1–10.0)0.5601.0000.9970.9999
 CRP (ng/ml)13,350.1 (7,116.7–28,145.4)12,937.1 (7,483.5–26,490.9)18,801.0 (10,274.2–31,983.5)0.0431.0000.0250.675
 GDF-15 (ng/ml)4.9 (3.1–6.3)4.1 (2.9–6.3)4.5 (3.0–6.3)0.0340.9240.0220.594
 PCT (ng/ml)0.0 (0.0–0.1)0.0 (0.0–0.0)0.0 (0.0–0.0)0.8201.0000.6030.9999
 Pentraxin-3 (ng/ml)4.5 (3.0–7.0)3.8 (2.5–7.3)3.9 (2.8–6.3)0.0741.0000.0570.9999
 RAGE (ng/ml)5.1 (3.7–6.8)4.8 (3.5–6.5)4.7 (3.6–6.6)0.5001.0000.2450.9999
 TNF-R1α (ng/ml)3.3 (2.2–4.8)3.0 (2.1–4.6)3.6 (2.3–5.2)0.1201.0000.3250.9999
 TROY (ng/ml)0.1 (0.1–0.1)0.1 (0.1–0.1)0.1 (0.1–0.1)0.5401.0000.4080.9999
 IL-6 (pg/ml)11.0 (6.0–21.2)10.2 (6.2–15.7)13.3 (6.6–22.3)0.4001.0000.7640.9999
Oxidative stress
 MPO (ng/ml)32.7 (17.8–67.1)35.3 (16.1–78.2)32.3 (16.6–66.7)0.9501.0000.9990.9999
Remodeling
 Syndecan-1 (ng/ml)8.5 (7.2–10.6)8.1 (6.9–9.7)8.8 (7.1–10.8)0.0931.0000.4420.9999
 Periostin (ng/ml)5.8 (3.4–9.7)5.7 (3.4–8.8)5.4 (3.1–8.5)0.4401.0000.1980.9999
 Galectin-3 (ng/ml)36.2 (27.0–48.5)35.4 (27.3–48.7)40.1 (30.3–53.1)0.0391.0000.3000.9999
 Osteopontin (ng/ml)112.1 (78.6–172.4)112.7 (84.2–151.3)112.9 (71.3–179.9)0.9201.0000.6870.9999
 ST-2 (ng/ml)3.4 (1.0–8.7)2.8 (0.9–6.6)3.9 (1.2–7.2)0.1501.0000.5650.9999
Cardiomyocyte stress/injury
 BNP (pg/ml)520.9 (289.5–877.9)397.3 (214.8–667.9)300.1 (221.7–600.9)<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Troponin I (pg/ml)11.9 (6.0–23.6)10.9 (6.1–23.3)8.4 (4.7–18.5)0.05151.0000.0260.702
Angiogenesis/endothelial function
 VEGFR (ng/ml)0.4 (0.3–0.6)0.4 (0.2–0.5)0.3 (0.2–0.5)0.0360.9760.0120.324
 Angiogenin (ng/ml)1,856.6 (1,245.7–2,723.7)2,080.2 (1,353.0–2,893.4)1,755.9 (1,333.6–2,917.9)0.1601.0000.6390.9999
 Neuropilin (ng/ml)12.9 (8.3–18.3)11.2 (8.1–15.4)12.2 (8.1–17.0)0.1701.0000.1840.9999
 proADM (ng/ml)2.9 (1.6–5.0)2.5 (1.5–4.1)2.8 (1.5–5.3)0.1501.0000.7390.9999
 NTpro-CNP (ng/ml)0.0 (0.0–0.1)0.0 (0.0–0.1)0.0 (0.0–0.1)0.7501.0000.4510.9999
Atherosclerosis
 ESAM (ng/ml)62.5 (56.4–70.0)61.7 (56.1–68.3)62.6 (57.5–70.5)0.4401.0000.8720.9999
 LTBR (ng/ml)0.4 (0.3–0.6)0.4 (0.3–0.6)0.5 (0.3–0.6)0.1401.0000.0680.9999
Renal function
 NGAL (ng/ml)81.9 (54.4–129.5)76.8 (55.7–143.9)102.0 (62.9–154.9)0.0330.8830.0200.9999
 KIM 1 (pg/ml)269.4 (178.6–462.9)327.5 (218.2–650.2)351.2 (232.3–585.7)0.0010.021<0.001<0.001
 BUN (mg/dl)31.0 (23.0–44.0)28.0 (21.0–39.0)30.0 (22.0–41.0)0.0601.0000.1350.9999
Hematopoiesis
 RBC (× 1012/l)4.2 (3.8–4.7)4.2 (3.7–4.6)3.9 (3.5–4.4)<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.6 (11.4–13.8)12.1 (10.8–13.6)11.6 (10.4–12.6)<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
Other
 Endothelin-1 (pg/ml)6.9 (5.2–9.3)6.3 (4.8–8.0)6.3 (4.2–9.2)0.0150.4020.0090.243
 d-Dimer (ng/ml)155.2 (90.6–340.3)171.0 (90.6–333.8)176.0 (90.6–338.6)0.3501.0000.1870.9999
 PIGR (ng/ml)406.0 (262.5–647.1)379.9 (274.9–604.5)401.3 (256.3–694.4)0.8801.0000.8150.9999
 PSAP-B (ng/ml)40.6 (29.5–55.2)34.8 (26.6–52.8)36.3 (26.8–56.7)0.0351.0000.0760.9999
 WAP4C (ng/ml)28.8 (14.9–55.0)28.2 (13.8–49.5)28.5 (14.4–59.6)0.7201.0000.9780.9999
 Mesothelin (ng/ml)88.4 (75.2–102.4)85.4 (71.4–96.6)87.8 (77.4–103.8)0.0971.0000.4430.9999
 Glucose (mg/dl)126.0 (103.0–159.0)119.0 (97.0–166.0)121.0 (94.0–159.0)0.3101.0000.1280.9999
 Platelet count (× 109/l)212.0 (165.0–264.0)215.0 (170.0–287.0)238.5 (190.0–308.0)0.0100.2790.0030.081

Values are median (IQR).

HFpEF = heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction; HFmrEF = heart failure with a mid-range ejection fraction; HFrEF = heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction; NT-proBNP = N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • corrected for multiple comparisons.