Table 2

Baseline Characteristics

HFrEF (n = 607)HFmrEF (n = 128)HFpEF (n = 108)p Valuep Value for Trend
Demographics
 Age, yrs68.0 ± 12.070.7 ± 11.374.4 ± 10.1<0.001<0.001
 Female137 (22.6)76 (59.4)57 (52.8)<0.001<0.001
 BMI, kg/m228.1 ± 5.729.0 ± 7.129.6 ± 7.00.0290.027
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m248.4 ± 19.548.1 ± 18.747.0 ± 21.50.8000.353
NYHA functional class0.2900.186
 I/II90 (15.6)27 (21.8)16 (16.5)
 III329 (57.1)64 (51.6)61 (62.9)
 IV157 (27.3)33 (26.6)20 (20.6)
LVEF25 (20–30)42 (40–45)56 (50–60)<0.001<0.001
Systolic BP, mm Hg119.3 ± 17.2127.1 ± 16.0134.2 ± 17.2<0.001<0.001
Diastolic BP, mm Hg72.5 ± 11.973.5 ± 12.274.7 ± 13.50.1900.027
Heart rate, beats/min80.3 ± 14.978.5 ± 15.679.0 ± 16.80.4100.588
Rolofylline406 (66.9)90 (70.3)70 (64.8)0.6480.920
Medical history
 Mitral regurgitation298 (49.2)40 (31.3)28 (26.2)<0.001<0.001
 HF578 (95.2)124 (96.9)97 (89.8)0.0340.078
 Hospitalization for HF previous year356 (58.6)70 (54.7)49 (45.4)0.0340.011
 HF hospitalizations1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)0.5600.278
 Ischemic heart disease434 (71.7)86 (67.2)58 (53.7)<0.001<0.001
 Myocardial infarction351 (58.0)57 (44.5)25 (23.4)<0.001<0.001
 Hypertension425 (70.0)112 (87.5)95 (88.0)<0.001<0.001
 Stroke or PVD117 (19.3)25 (19.5%)24 (22.2)0.7800.519
 COPD or asthma146 (24.2)15 (11.7)26 (24.1%)0.0080.261
 Diabetes mellitus275 (45.4)63 (49.2)42 (38.9)0.2800.419
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter305 (50.5)69 (53.9)71 (65.7)0.0140.005
Medication before admission
 Beta-blockers485 (80.0)93 (72.7)85 (78.7)0.1800.348
 ACE-I/ARB455 (75.1)91 (71.1)82 (75.9)0.6100.86
 MRA311 (51.3)49 (38.3)32 (29.6)<0.001<0.001
 Digoxin170 (28.1)35 (27.3)23 (21.3)0.3500.182
 Nitrates142 (23.5)28 (21.9)26 (24.1)0.9100.984
 CCB41 (6.8)22 (17.2)28 (25.9)<0.001<0.001
Presenting signs and symptoms
 Orthopnea489 (82.5)105 (83.3)85 (79.4)0.7100.564
 Dyspnea at rest (NYHA functional class IV)323 (55.6)71 (57.7)56 (54.4)0.8700.963
 Angina pectoris117 (19.3)31 (24.2)21 (19.6)0.4500.602
 Edema155 (25.6)30 (23.4)34 (31.5)0.3400.349
 JVP251 (45.6)52 (46.8)39 (39.4)0.4800.362

Values are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range).

ACE-I = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CCB = calcium channel blocker; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HF = heart failure; JVP = increased jugular venous pressure; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; MRA = mineral receptor antagonist; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PVD = peripheral vascular disease.