Table 1

Biomarker Classification

Inflammation/Immune SystemRemodelingOxidative StressCardiomyocyte Stress/InjuryEndothelial FunctionAtherosclerosisAngiogenesisRenal FunctionMetabolic MarkersHematopoiesisOther
AngiogeninX
BNPX
BUNXX
CreatinineX
CRPXX
d-DimerXX
Endothelin-1XXXX
ESAMXXX
Galectin-3XXX
GDF-15XXXX
HemoglobinX
IL-6X
KIM-1X
LTBRXX
MesothelinX
MPOXX
NeuropilinXXX
NGALXX
NT-proCNPX
OsteopontinXXXX
PCTX
Pentraxin-3X
PeriostinXX
PIGRXX
Platelet countXX
proADMX
PSAP-BXX
RAGEXX
RBC count
ST-2XXXXX
Syndecan-1XX
TNF-R1αX
Troponin-IX
TROYXX
VEGFR-1X
WAP4CXX
WBC countXX

BNP = brain natriuretic peptide; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CRP = C-reactive protein; ESAM = endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule; ET = endothelin; GDF = growth differentiation factor; IL = interleukin; KIM = kidney injury molecule; LTBR = lymphotoxin beta receptor; MPO = myeloperoxidase; NGAL = neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; NT-proCNP = N-terminal pro–C-type natriuretic peptide; PCT = procalcitonin; PIGR = polymeric immunoglobulin receptor; proADM = pro-adrenomedulin; PSAP-B = prosaposin B; RAGE = receptor for advanced glycation end product; RBC = red blood cell; ST-2 = soluble ST-2; TNF-R1 α = tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1α; VEGFR = vascular endothelial growth receptor; WAP-4C = WAP 4-disulphide core domain protein HE; WBC = white blood cell.