Table 1

Baseline Characteristics and Therapy of Patients With Methamphetamine-Associated Cardiomyopathy

All (N = 30)Patients With Discontinued Abuse at Follow-Up (n = 23)Patients With Discontinued Abuse at Follow-Up (n = 7)p Value
Age, yrs30.3 ± 1.931.2 ± 6.527.7 ± 4.60.202
Male28/30 (93.3)21/23 (91.3)7/7 (100)1.000
Body mass index, kg/m227.7 ± 4.326.9 ± 4.524.1 ± 5.30.195
Heart rate, beats/min117 ± 596 ± 2289 ± 240.451
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg132 ± 2123 ± 14119 ± 150.461
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg90 ± 681 ± 1676 ± 90.457
Signs and symptoms on admission
 NYHA functional class III or IV25/30 (83.3)20/23 (87.0)5/7 (71.4)0.565
 Angina pectoris11/30 (36.7)7/23 (30.4)4/7 (57.1)0.372
Comorbidities
 Arterial hypertension4/30 (13.3)3/23 (13.0)1/7 (14.3)1.000
 Diabetes mellitus0/30 (0)0/23 (0)0/7 (0)NA
 Positive family history for DCM/SCD4/27 (14.8)4/21 (19.0)0/7 (0)0.545
History of drug abuse
 Amphetamine30/30 (100)23/23 (100)7/7 (100)NA
 Only amphetamine3/30 (10.0)2/23 (8.7)1/7 (14.3)1.000
 Duration of amphetamine abuse, yrs5.7 (1–15)5.1 ± 2.88.0 ± 5.30.259
Echocardiographic findings
 LVEF, %19 ± 619 ± 819 ± 80.993
 LVEDD, mm67.1 ± 7.468.0 ± 7.464.6 ± 7.10.297
 LVESD, mm58.1 ± 6.258.2 ± 6.958.0 ± 5.00.959
 RV diameter36.6 ± 6.738.1 ± 7.433.5 ± 3.70.174
 LA diameter, mm46.4 ± 7.046.8 ± 7.445.2 ± 5.90.621
 TAPSE, mm17 ± 516 ± 517 ± 40.841
 LV thrombus10/30 (33.3)7/23 (30.4)3/7 (42.9)0.657
 RV thrombus1/30 (3.3)1/23 (4.3)0/7 (0)1.000
 Pleural effusion17/30 (56.7)15/23 (65.2)2/7 (28.6)0.190
 Pericardial effusion12/30 (40)10/23 (43.5)2/7 (28.6)0.669
 Ascites4/28 (14.3)4/21 (19.0)0/7 (0)0.545
Therapy
 ECMO1/30 (3.3)1/23 (4.3)0/7 (0)1.000
 Valve surgery1/30 (3.3)1/23 (4.3)0/7 (0)1.000
 AICD1/30 (3.3)0/23 (0)1/7 (14.3)0.233
 Wearable cardioverter-defibrillator10/30 (33.3)9/23 (39.1)1/7 (14.3)0.372
 ACEI/ARB30/30 (100)23/23 (100)7/7 (100)1.000
 Beta blocker29/30 (96.7)22/23 (95.7)7/7 (100)1.000
 MRA26/30 (86.7)20/23 (87.0)6/7 (85.7)1.000
 Ivabradine3/30 (10.0)1/23 (4.3)2/7 (28.6)0.128
 Loop diuretic agents22/30 (73.3)17/23 (73.9)5/7 (71.4)1.000
 Oral anticoagulation6/30 (20.0)6/23 (26.1)0/7 (0)0.290

Values are mean ± SD, n/N (%), or median (range).

ACEI = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; AICD = automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; DCM = dilated cardiomyopathy; ECMO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; LA = left atrial; LV = left ventricular; LVEDD = left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESD = left ventricular end-systolic diameter; MRA = mineral receptor antagonist; NA = not applicable; NYHA = New York Heart Association; RV = right ventricular; SCD = sudden cardiac death; TAPSE = tricuspid annular plain systolic excursion.