Table 1

Baseline Characteristics by Randomization Arm

Intervention (n = 15)Attention Control (n = 12)p Value
Age (yrs)72.7 ± 10.871.8 ± 9.10.83
Women53670.70
Race (black)53581
Body mass index30.8 ± 7.127.3 ± 6.00.19
Days hospitalized5 (2)6 (4)0.49
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)40 ± 1334 ± 180.33
Preserved ejection fraction (>45%)42%40%1
Previous hospitalization within 6 months20420.40
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus60330.25
 Hyperlipidemia47501
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease13330.36
 Kidney disease (estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2)67580.71
 Anemia (Hgb <14 g/dl men, <12 g/dl women)60581
 No. of comorbidities4.6 ± 1.85.3 ± 2.10.39
Heart failure therapies
 Loop diuretic agent931001
 Beta-blocker93750.29
 ACE-I or ARB53670.70
 Aldosterone antagonist27170.66
 Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator14171
Study measures
 Short Physical Performance Battery4.7 ± 2.76.0 ± 3.00.23
 Six-minute walk distance (m)160 ± 85201 ± 1200.32
 Frailty (≥3 of 5 Fried criteria)53581
 Gait speed (m/s)0.55 ± 0.190.61 ± 0.280.50
 Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire43 ± 1945 ± 170.79
 Cognitive impairment (MoCA <26)80831
 Depression (GDS-15 >5)33250.70

Values are mean ± SD, %, or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise indicated. p Values determined by Student t test or Fisher exact test.

ACE-I = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; GDS-15 = 15-Item Geriatric Depression Score; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; Hgb = hemoglobin; MoCA = Montreal Cognitive Assessment.