Table 2

Hemodynamic Measurements at Rest and During Interventions

AllAges 20–39 YrsAges 40–59 YrsAges 60–80 Yrs
Rest
 SBP (mm Hg)132 (128–136)119 (115–124)133 (126–140)143 (136–151)
 DBP (mm Hg)75 (72–78)65 (61–70)81 (78–85)77 (72–82)
 MAP (mm Hg)89 (86–91)79 (75–82)94 (90–98)92 (88–97)
 HR (beats/min)63 (61–66)63 (57–69)64 (60–69)62 (58–66)
 CI (l/min/m2)2.7 (2.6–2.8)2.9 (2.6–3.1)2.8 (2.6–2.9)2.6 (2.4–2.8)
 SV (ml)85 (79–91)90 (77–103)85 (74–95)81 (73–89)
 RAP (mm Hg)5 (5–6)5 (4–6)6 (5–6)5 (4–6)
 mPAP (mm Hg)14 (14–15)13 (12–14)15 (13–16)15 (14–16)
 PCWP (mm Hg)9 (8–9)9 (8–9)9 (8–10)8 (7–9)
 SVR (dynes/s·cm5)1,326 (1,246–1,406)1,110 (993–1,227)1,398 (1,273–1,524)1,459 (1,319–1,598)
 PVR (mm Hg/l/min-1)1.1 (1.0–1.2)0.8 (0.7–1.0)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.5 (1.2–1.7)
 SvO2 (%)75 (74–76)75 (73–77)75 (72–78)74 (73–76)
 AV O2 difference (%)24 (23–25)24 (23–26)24 (22–27)23 (21–25)
 Lactate (mmol/l)0.6 (0.6–0.7)0.6 (0.5–0.7)0.7 (0.6–0.8)0.6 (0.5–0.7)
Leg raise
 SBP (mm Hg)136 (130–141)122 (115–129)133 (126–140)152 (142–161)
 DBP (mm Hg)76 (72–79)65 (58–72)78 (73–84)83 (77–88)
 MAP (mm Hg)89 (85–92)78 (72–84)91 (85–96)97 (91–104)
 HR (beats/min)70 (67–73)66 (60–72)67 (61–72)78 (73–82)
 CI (L/min/m2)3.2 (3.0–3.4)3.1 (2.8–3.3)3.0 (2.8–3.3)3.5 (3.1–4.0)
 SV (ml)89 (84–94)89 (80–99)89 (80–98)89 (78–99)
 RAP (mm Hg)9 (8–9)8 (7–9)9 (7–10)9 (8–10)
 mPAP (mm Hg)21 (19–22)17 (15–19)20 (18–22)26 (24–28)
 PCWP (mm Hg)14 (13–15)12 (11–13)13 (11–15)16 (15–18)
 SVR (dynes/s·cm5)1,101 (1,032–1,169)992 (878–1,105)1,159 (1,045–1,274)1,141 (1,007–1,275)
 PVR (mm Hg/l·min-1)1.2 (1.1–1.3)0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.5 (1.3–1.8)
 SvO2 (%)69 (67–71)72 (70–74)70 (68–73)65 (62–68)
 AV O2 difference (%)30 (28–31)27 (24–30)29 (27–30)33 (30–37)
 Lactate (mmol/l)0.7 (0.6–0.7)0.6 (0.5–0.7)0.7 (0.6–0.8)0.7 (0.6–0.8)
25% VO2-max
 Workload (W)31 (29–34)36 (30–42)31 (26–35)28 (24–31)
 SBP (mm Hg)142 (138–149)128 (121–135)144 (134–153)157 (149–166)
 DBP (mm Hg)80 (77–83)72 (68–77)81 (74–88)86 (80–91)
 MAP (mm Hg)92 (89–96)83 (79–87)94 (87–101)100 (95–105)
 HR (bpm)84 (81–88)85 (78–92)82 (75–89)86 (80–91)
 CI (l/min/m2)5.2 (4.9–5.4)5.6 (5.0–6.2)5.0 (4.7–5.4)4.8 (4.5–5.1)
 SV (ml)120 (110–129)126 (105–146)124 (107–141)108 (95–121)
 RAP (mm Hg)9 (8–10)7 (6–9)10 (8–12)10 (9–12)
 mPAP (mm Hg)25 (24–27)21 (18–23)26 (22–29)30 (27–33)
 PCWP (mm Hg)16 (15–19)13 (10–15)17 (14–20)19 (17–21)
 SVR (dynes/s·cm5)706 (653–759)614 (526–701)697 (616–788)821 (725–918)
 PVR (mm Hg/l/min-1)1.0 (0.9–1.1)0.8 (0.6–0.9)0.9 (0.7–1.1)1.3 (1.1–1.5)
 SvO2 (%)55 (53–56)56 (54–59)54 (51–56)54 (51–57)
 AV O2 difference (%)43 (42–45)43 (40–45)44 (42–47)43 (40–46)
 Lactate (mmol/l)1.0 (0.9–1.1)0.8 (0.6–1–0)1.1 (0.9–1.4)1.0 (0.8–1.1)
50% VO2 max
 Workload (W)89 (82–96)104 (90–118)85 (74–96)79 (68–90)
 SBP (mm Hg)158 (152–164)147 (137–157)163 (152–174)163 (154–171)
 DBP (mm Hg)79 (75–84)66 (59–73)85 (80–91)87 (82–92)
 MAP (mm Hg)96 (91–100)82 (75–89)101 (93–109)104 (99–109)
 HR (beats/min)105 (102–109)110 (103–117)104 (97–111)102 (97–108)
 CI (l/min/m2)7.3 (7.0–7.7)8.2 (7.6–8.9)7.3 (6.8–7.8)6.6 (5.9–7.2)
 Stroke volume (mL)132 (123–142)138 (118–157)136 (119–152)123 (107–140)
 RAP (mm Hg)9 (8–10)7 (6–9)9 (7–11)10 (8–12)
 mPAP (mm Hg)30 (28–32)24 (21–27)30 (26–33)35 (32–38)
 PCWP (mm Hg)17 (16–19)15 (12–17)18 (15–22)19 (17–22)
 SVR (dynes/s·cm5)532 (484–581)410 (353–468)538 (480–596)663 (556–771)
 PVR (mm Hg/l/min-1)0.9 (0.8–1.0)0.6 (0.5–0.8)0.8 (0.7–1.0)1.3 (1.0–1.5)
 SvO2 (%)44 (42–45)45 (43–48)44 (41–46)42 (39–45)
 AV O2 difference (%)54 (53–56)53 (50–55)53 (51–56)56 (53–59)
 Lactate (mmol/l)2.0 (1.8–2.3)2.0 (1.4–2.6)2.2 (1.8–2.7)1.9 (1.4–2.3)
75% VO2 max
 Workload (W)149 (139–159)174 (155–192)144 (129–159)130 (113–147)
 SBP (mm Hg)173 (167–180)159 (150–168)172 (160–186)188 (181–196)
 DBP (mm Hg)88 (84–92)82 (75–89)89 (81–97)93 (87–99)
 MAP (mm Hg)107 (102–111)98 (91–105)107 (98–115)116 (110–121)
 HR (beats/min)132 (126–137)141 (132–151)126 (117–135)128 (121–136)
 CI (l/min/m2)8.9 (8.6–9.3)9.9 (9.6–10.4)8.8 (8.4–9.3)7.9 (7.2–8.6)
 SV (ml)129 (121–137)130 (122–138)139 (124–154)115 (100–131)
 RAP (mm Hg)9 (8–10)7 (5–8)9 (7–12)11 (9–13)
 mPAP (mm Hg)32 (30–34)25 (22–28)32 (27–38)39 (36–43)
 PCWP (mm Hg)18 (16–20)13 (10–15)19 (15–23)23 (21–25)
 SVR (dynes/s·cm5)492 (451–534)404 (364–444)469 (424–513)658 (555–761)
 PVR (mm Hg/l/min-1)0.9 (0.8–1.0)0.7 (0.6–0.8)0.8 (0.6–1.0)1.1 (0.9–1.4)
 SvO2 (%)34 (32–35)35 (32–37)34 (31–36)32 (29–35)
 AV O2 difference (%)64 (62–65)63 (60–66)64 (61–66)65 (62–68)
 Lactate (mmoll)5.9 (5.2–6.6)6.0 (4.8–7.3)6.3 (5.2–7.5)5.3 (4.0–6.6)

Values are mean ± 95% confidence interval.

AV = arteriovenous; CI = cardiac index; mPAP = mean pulmonary artery pressure; PCWP = pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; PVR = pulmonary vascular resistance; RAP = right atrial pressure; SV = stroke volume; SvO2 = mixed venous oxygen saturation; SVR = systemic vascular resistance.

  • p <0.05, for difference across age categories.