Table 2

Differences in Cardiac Function and Structure Between Blacks and Whites Adjusted for Clinical Covariates

UnadjustedAdjusted
Black
(n = 1,286)
White
(n = 4,441)
p ValueBlack
(n = 1,257)
White
(n = 4,233)
p Value
Cardiac structure
 EDVI, ml/m244.2 ± 0.343.9 ± 0.20.4445.2 ± 0.343.8 ± 0.2<0.001
 LV mass/BSA, g/m278.1 ± 0.679.6 ± 0.30.02377.7 ± 0.579.6 ± 0.30.003
 LV mass/height2.7, g/m2.738.3 ± 0.337.8 ± 0.20.1536.9 ± 0.338.2 ± 0.1<0.001
 LV mass/EDV, mg/ml1.82 ± 0.011.87 ± 0.010.0011.76 ± 0.011.88 ± 0.01<0.001
 LV hypertrophy12%10%0.07910%10%0.88
 LA volume index, ml/m225.9 ± 0.225.4 ± 0.10.03426.1 ± 0.225.3 ± 0.10.001
Systolic function
 Ejection fraction, %64.7 ± 0.265.6 ± 0.1<0.00164.5 ± 0.265.7 ± 0.1<0.001
 Peak longitudinal strain−17.52 ± 0.07−18.14 ± 0.04<0.001−17.60 ± 0.07−18.11 ± 0.04<0.001
 s′, cm/s6.77 ± 0.047.03 ± 0.02<0.0016.76 ± 0.047.05 ± 0.02<0.001
 Stroke volume, ml65.0 ± 0.467.4 ± 0.2<0.00164.8 ± 0.467.5 ± 0.2<0.001
 Cardiac output, l/min4.35 ± 0.034.36 ± 0.020.674.22 ± 0.034.40 ± 0.02<0.001
Diastolic function
 E-wave, cm/s65.5 ± 0.566.6 ± 0.30.07264.9 ± 0.566.7 ± 0.30.003
 A-wave, cm/s82.6 ± 0.579.8 ± 0.3<0.00180.6 ± 0.580.3 ± 0.30.61
 Deceleration time, ms199 ± 1208 ± 1<0.001200 ± 1208 ± 1<0.001
 E/A ratio0.82 ± 0.0080.87 ± 0.004<0.0010.84 ± 0.0080.87 ± 0.0040.001
 e′, cm/s6.17 ± 0.046.28 ± 0.020.0226.24 ± 0.046.28 ± 0.020.44
 E/e′ ratio11.5 ± 0.111.3 ± 0.10.2011.27 ± 0.1111.34 ± 0.060.65
Arterial function and ventricular-arterial coupling
 Ea, mm Hg/ml1.95 ± 0.011.81 ± 0.01<0.0011.96 ± 0.011.80 ± 0.01<0.001
 SVRI, dyne · s · cm−5 · m23,378 ± 243,064 ± 13<0.0013,410 ± 243,056 ± 13<0.001
 TAC, ml/mm Hg1.05 ± 0.0091.10 ± 0.005<0.0011.04 ± 0.0091.10 ± 0.005<0.001
 cfPWV, m/s12.4 ± 0.1111.6 ± 0.06<0.00112.4 ± 0.1111.6 ± 0.06<0.001
 LV Ees, mm Hg/ml2.92 ± 0.022.83 ± 0.010.0012.93 ± 0.022.81 ± 0.01<0.001
 LV Ees/M/V, mm Hg/g1.70 ± 0.021.60 ± 0.01<0.0011.75 ± 0.021.59 ± 0.01<0.001
 Ea/Ees0.70 ± 0.0050.66 ± 0.003<0.0010.70 ± 0.0050.66 ± 0.003<0.001

Values are mean ± SE or %.

BSA = body surface area; cfPWV = carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity; Ea = arterial elastance; EDV = end-diastolic volume; EDVI = end-diastolic volume index; Ees = end-systolic elastance; Ees/M/V = end-systolic elastance normalized for mass/volume ratio; LA = left atrial; LV = left ventricular; SVRI = systemic vascular resistance index; TAC = total arterial compliance.

  • Adjusted analysis by age, sex, body mass index, use of antihypertensive medication, diabetes mellitus, heart rate, and prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. LV mass/EDV ratio was added in the model for LV Ees and Ea/Ees ratio comparisons.