Table 2

Baseline Demographics

CF LVAD
(n = 35)
HFrEF
(n = 30)
Controls
(n = 15)
p Valuep Value
Age (yrs)55 (44–68)67 (56–73)33 (30–69)0.0110.007
Female (%)6 (17)5 (17)9 (60)0.9590.002
Race0.0320.003
 Caucasian (%)6 (17)1 (3)3 (20)
 African American (%)10 (29)19 (63)1 (7)
 Hispanic (%)15 (43)8 (27)9 (60)
 Asian (%)4 (11)2 (7)2 (13)
Hypertension (%)17 (49)23 (77)4 (27)0.0240.004
Diabetes (%)15 (43)13 (43)3 (20)0.9690.255
CKD 4/51 (3)6 (20)0 (0)0.0420.021
Ischemic etiology of HF (%)12 (34)5 (17)0.107
LVEF (%)25 (20–30)25 (25–33)0.137
Medications
 Warfarin (%)32 (91)15 (50)<0.001
 Aspirin (%)29 (83)19 (63)0.074
 ACE or ARB (%)22 (63)20 (67)0.869
 Hydralazine (%)10 (29)14 (47)0.093
 Nitrates (%)7 (20)12 (40)0.090
 Beta blocker (%)34 (97)29 (97)0.283
Type of LVAD
 HeartMate II (%)30 (86)
 HeartWare (%)5 (14)

Values are mean (range) or n (%).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB = angiotensin converting blocker; CF = continuous flow; CKD = chronic kidney disease; HF = heart failure; HFrEF = heart failure reduced ejection fraction; LVAD = left ventricular assist device; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction.

  • CF LVAD versus HFrEF.

  • Across all 3 groups.