Table 1

Baseline Characteristics by Baseline Troponin Above or Below the 99th Percentile Upper Reference Limit of 0.014 μg/l

Elevated Troponin (n = 969)Low Troponin (n = 107)p Value
Demographics and heart failure characteristics
 Age, (yrs)72.5 ± 10.771.0 ± 11.10.1560
 Male623 (64.3)42 (39.3)<0.0001
 White/Caucasian926 (95.6)101 (94.4)0.6219 [F]
 Left ventricular EF (%)38.4 ± 14.542.8 ± 13.80.0036
 EF <40%509 (55.9)41 (40.6)0.0033
 Ischemic heart disease516 (53.3)47 (43.9)0.0668
 Time from presentation to randomization (h)8.0 ± 4.77.0 ± 4.40.0286
 NYHA functional class 30 days before admission
  I280 (29.2)27 (25.2)0.0609
  II237 (24.7)39 (36.4)
  III322 (33.6)32 (29.9)
  IV120 (12.5)9 (8.4)
Clinical signs
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)142.4 ± 16.5141.7 ± 15.40.6813
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)78.7 ± 14.180.8 ± 14.20.1406
 Heart rate (beats/min)79.2 ± 14.782.2 ± 15.30.0477
 HF hospitalization in past year327 (33.7)29 (27.1)0.1658
 Serelaxin administration477 (49.2)58 (54.2)0.3283
Congestion at baseline
 Edema762 (78.7)88 (82.2)0.3952
 Orthopnea929 (96.0)99 (92.5)0.1278 [F]
 JVP714 (75.5)76 (72.4)0.4862
 Dyspnea on exertion954 (99.6)106 (100.0)1.0000 [F]
 Rales923 (95.3)99 (92.5)0.2197
Comorbidities
 Hypertension836 (86.3)94 (87.9)0.6515
 Hyperlipidemia521 (53.8)53 (49.5)0.4048
 Diabetes mellitus493 (50.9)30 (28.0)<0.0001
 Stroke or other cerebrovascular event134 (13.8)11 (10.3)0.3077
 Asthma, bronchitis, or COPD158 (16.3)10 (9.3)0.0598
 History of atrial fibrillation or flutter496 (51.2)64 (59.8)0.0901
 History of CRT or ICD procedures253 (26.1)21 (19.6)0.1441
 Myocardial infarction342 (35.3)29 (27.1)0.0907
Baseline laboratory values
 Sodium (mmol/l)140.81 ± 3.65140.94 ± 3.180.7179
 Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.76 ± 1.8512.97 ± 1.880.2869
 Potassium (mmol/l)4.28 ± 0.644.25 ± 0.630.6296
 Creatinine (μmol/l)118.7 ± 33.598.1 ± 25.7<0.0001 [S]
 Uric acid (μmol/l)480.8 ± 136.7425.0 ± 120.0<0.0001
 BUN (mmol/l)10.01 ± 4.118.00 ± 2.73<0.0001 [S]
 Cystatin C (mg/l)1.48 (1.46–1.51)1.23 (1.18–1.29)<0.0001 [S]
 NT-proBNP (ng/l)5,313 (5,029–5,613)3,422 (2,893–4,047)<0.0001
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)52.78 ± 12.8558.39 ± 12.91<0.0001
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.09 ± 1.184.10 ± 1.080.9789
 Glucose (mmol/l)7.85 ± 3.727.09 ± 2.670.0090 [S]
Devices
 Pacemaker106 (10.9)7 (6.5)0.1592
 Implantable cardiac defibrillator131 (13.5)12 (11.2)0.5052
 Biventricular pacing98 (10.1)7 (6.5)0.2374
Medication (day 0, except nitrates)
 ACE inhibitors526 (54.3)65 (60.7)0.2022
 ACE inhibitors or ARBs659 (68.0)78 (72.9)0.3016
 ARBs158 (16.3)17 (15.9)0.9115
 Beta-blockers648 (66.9)86 (80.4)0.0044
 Aldosterone antagonists317 (32.7)28 (26.2)0.1686
 Oral loop diuretic agents 30 days prior46.5 (67.3)34.0 (57.5)0.0373 [S]
 Digoxin200 (20.6)14 (13.1)0.0632
 Nitrates at randomization74 (7.6)4 (3.7)0.1400

Values are mean ± SD or geometric mean (95% confidence interval) if log transformed, presented for continuous variables, and n (%) for categorical variables (percentage based on total number of patients with nonmissing values for the endpoint).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRT = cardiac resynchronization therapy; EF = ejection fraction; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HF = heart failure; ICD = implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; JVP = jugular venous pressure; NT-proBNP = N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide; NYHA = New York Heart Association.

  • For continuous variables, p values are based on Student t tests. For categorical variables, p values are based on chi-square tests if the count in each cell is >1 and the count is ≥5 for at least 80% of the cells. Otherwise, Fisher exact test was used. “[F]” indicates that the Fisher exact test was used to calculate the p value. “[S]” indicates that the Satterthwaite method was used to calculate the p value because of unequal variance in comparison groups.

  • The following variable was log transformed: NT-proBNP.