Table 2

Baseline Characteristics, Clinical Course, and Treatment Costs of Risk Subgroups With Respect to In-Center Mortality as Identified by Decision Tree Model

No or Short CPR
(n = 59)
Prolonged CPRAdjusted p Value
Adolescent or Young
(n = 12)
Advanced Age
(n = 44)
p1p2p3
Baseline characteristics at vaECMO implantation
 Age, yrs57 ± 1330 ± 1160 ± 110.0000.7800.000
 Sex
 Male73%50%82%0.5370.8670.072
 Female27%50%18%
 Body surface area, m22.03 ± 0.231.93 ± 0.412.03 ± 0.170.8971.0001.000
 Etiology of circulatory failure
 Myocardial ischemia61%33%88%0.2070.0150.001
 Cardiomyopathy20%17%5%
 Other cardiac3%17%5%
 Other noncardiac15%33%2%
 CPR during implant.56%100%100%0.0090.000NA
 CPR duration, min10 (0–30)98 (60–160)90 (63–120)0.0000.0001.000
 Distance to implantation site, km2.1 (0.5–10.0)10.3 (0.6–16.0)0.5 (0.5–9.7)0.5400.7560.129
Clinical course
 Lactate at arrival, mmol/l7.1 (3.5–13)9.1 (3.5–16)14 (8–16)1.0000.0030.603
 Complications80%67%88%1.0000.0180.018
 Surgical interventions68%33%25%0.0720.2250.732
 vaECMO weaned69%67%30%1.0000.0000.057
 Time on vaECMO, days5 (2–12)5 (2–7)2 (1–6)1.0000.0060.750
 In-center stay, days17 (5–35)10 (8–14)2 (1–9)0.6330.0000.210
Outcome
 Mortality to primary discharge44%33%80%1.0000.0010.012
 Overall mortality54%50%89%1.0000.0010.024
Costs
 Treatment costs, €82,576 (46,412–142,815)53,262 (31,682–79,985)31,383 (19,885–58,111)0.4230.0000.330

Values are mean ± SD, %, or median (25th to 75th percentile). Risk subgroups are defined as no or short CPR: CPR ≤45 min, age independent; prolonged CPR adolescent or young adult: CPR >45 min, ≤43 years of age; prolonged CPR advanced age: CPR >45 min, >43 years of age.

Abbreviations as in Table 1.

Bold values indicate statistical significance (p < 0.05).

  • One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’ post hoc tests; p1: no or short CPR versus prolonged CPR adolescent or young adult; p2: no or short CPR versus prolonged CPR advanced age; p3: prolonged CPR adolescent or young adult versus prolonged CPR advanced age.

  • One or more of the following complications from onset of vaECMO therapy to primary discharge or death were considered: bleeding, ischemic stroke, ARDS, renal failure requiring dialysis, shock liver, sepsis, visceral ischemia, or leg ischemia.

  • One or more of the following interventions from onset of vaECMO therapy to primary discharge or death were considered: CABG, valve replacement, ventricular assist device, vascular, abdominal, or other surgery.