Table 1

Baseline Characteristics by Frailty Status

VariableNumber MissingTotal (n = 448)Not Frail (n = 116)Intermediate Frail (n = 248)Frail (n = 84)p Value for Trend
Age (yrs)073.2 ± 13.369.0 ± 14.074.4 ± 13.175.5 ± 11.9<0.001
Men0257 (57.4%)68 (58.6%)144 (58.1%)45 (53.6%)0.505
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Hypertension0405 (90.4%)102 (87.9%)223 (89.9%)80 (95.2%)0.095
 Current or former smoker0265 (59.2%)65 (56.0%)141 (56.9%)59 (70.2%)0.062
 Diabetes mellitus2175 (39.2%)38 (32.8%)95 (38.5%)42 (50.6%)0.013
 Hyperlipidemia1369 (82.6%)89 (76.7%)210 (84.7%)70 (84.3%)0.122
 BMI (kg/m2)029.7 (26–35)30.3 (27–35)29.6 (25–35)29.9 (26–37)0.873
Comorbidities
 Prior MI2118 (26.5%)24 (20.7%)63 (25.6%)31 (36.9%)0.013
 COPD0119 (26.6%)17 (14.7%)70 (28.2%)32 (38.1%)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter0284 (63.4%)68 (58.6%)155 (62.5%)61 (72.6%)0.050
 Depression1179 (40.0%)30 (25.9%)108 (43.7%)41 (48.8%)0.001
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)4957.1 (42–72)61.3 (47–71)57.7 (42–72)47.7 (39–66)0.024
 Anemia6240 (54.3%)36 (31.3%)150 (61.7%)54 (64.3%)<0.001
 Comorbidity index ≥32299 (67.0%)58 (50.0%)175 (71.1%)66 (78.6%)<0.001
HF characteristics and severity indexes
 EF (%)1146.0 ± 16.342.4 ± 17.546.7 ± 15.448.7 ± 16.40.005
 Prevalent HF0272 (60.7%)60 (51.7%)154 (62.1%)58 (69.1%)0.011

Values are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range).

BMI = body mass index; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; EF = ejection fraction; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HF = heart failure; MI = myocardial infarction.