Table 1

Study Characteristics

First Author Study (Ref. #)BBYearFollow-Upn (%)Types of PatientsEndpointsMajor Exclusion Criteria
Joglar et al.
U.S.-Carvedilol (13)
Carvedilol2001Maximum
400 days
AF: 136 (12%);
SR: 958
HF;
LVEF ≤35%
All-cause mortalityUnstable HF; heart rate <68 beats/min;
Class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs
Lechat et al.
CIBIS-II (14)
Bisoprolol2001Maximum
800 days
AF: 521 (21%)
SR: 2,018
HF;
LVEF ≤35%;
NYHA III–IV
All-cause mortality;
HF hospitalizations
Unstable HF; heart rate <60 beats/min; antiarrhythmic drugs other than amiodarone
Van Veldhuisen et al.
MERIT-HF (15)
Metoprolol2006Mean F/U
1 yr
AF: 556 (14%);
SR: 3,132
HF;
LVEF <40%;
NYHA II–IV
All-cause mortality;
HF; hospitalizations
Unstable HF; heart rate <68 beats/min;
CCB or amiodarone
Mulder et al.
SENIORS (16)
Nebivolol2011Mean F/U
21 months
AF: 464 (22%);
SR: 895
≥70 yrs of age;
HF admission
<1 yr or
LVEF ≤35%
All-cause mortality;
HF; hospitalizations
Unstable HF; beta-blocker use

BB = beta-blocker; CCB = calcium channel blockers; F/U = follow-up; HF = heart failure; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA = New York heart association; SR = sinus rhythm.

  • Only patients from the SENIORS trial with LVEF ≤35% were included.