Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of SL and ML Patients

SL (n = 33,249)ML (n = 679)p Value
Age, yrs55 (45–61)53 (43–60)<0.0001
Male25,003 (75.2)539 (79.4)0.0118
Race0.0133
 White23,493 (70.7)519 (76.4)
 Black6,167 (18.6)107 (15.8)
 Hispanic2,400 (7.2)39 (5.7)
 Asian818 (2.5)11 (1.6)
 Other371 (1.1)3 (0.4)
Blood type<0.0001
 A13,086 (39.4)218 (32.1)
 AB1,532 (4.6)13 (1.9)
 B4,483 (13.5)70 (10.3)
 O14,148 (42.6)378 (55.7)
HF etiology0.0005
 Ischemic14,396 (43.3)261 (38.4)
 Nonischemic17,940 (54.0)385 (56.7)
 Congenital913 (2.8)33 (4.9)
Education<0.0001
 High school/GED or less13,236 (39.8)206 (30.3)
 Some college7,027 (21.1)169 (24.9)
 College or graduate degree6,792 (20.4)173 (25.5)
 Unknown6,194 (18.6)131 (19.3)
Insurance<0.0001
 Private18,704 (56.3)445 (65.5)
 Medicaid4,039 (12.2)56 (8.3)
 Medicare8,772 (26.4)135 (19.9)
 Other governmental797 (2.4)25 (3.7)
 Other/unknown928 (2.8)18 (2.7)
Median AGI of home zip code, $68,986 (19,471–219,702)90,153 (25,471–253,831)0.0015
SES Index50.5 (47.9–53.3)51.2 (48.8–54.3)<0.0001
Status at start of first listing<0.0001
 1A6,880 (20.7)98 (14.4)
 1B11,446 (34.4)167 (24.6)
 214,111 (42.4)401 (59.1)
 7812 (2.4)13 (1.9)
UNOS region<0.0001
 11,494 (4.5)28 (4.1)
 24,351 (13.1)68 (10.0)
 34,098 (12.3)65 (9.7)
 43,604 (10.8)57 (8.4)
 54,467 (13.4)92 (13.6)
 6936 (2.8)16 (2.4)
 73,004 (9.0)85 (12.5)
 81,766 (5.3)48 (7.1)
 92,455 (7.4)94 (13.8)
 102,973 (8.9)48 (7.1)
 114,101 (12.3)78 (11.5)
Crossmatch19,351 (86.6)27 (90.0)0.7901
Height, cm175.3 (167.6 to 180.3)176.6 (170.0 to 182.9)<0.0001
Weight, kg81.6 (69.9 to 94.8)86.2 (74.0 to 98.7)<0.0001
BMI, kg/m226.9 (23.6 to 30.6)27.3 (24.3 to 31.2)0.0049
Hypertension6,035 (39.8)148 (43.2)0.3486
GFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease)62.8 (48.2 to 79.4)64.6 (50.7 to 80.7)0.0342
Dialysis349 (1.1)3 (0.4)0.1748
Diabetes mellitus8,517 (25.6)165 (24.3)0.4504
ECMO194 (0.6)2 (0.3)0.4466
IABP at first registration1,876 (5.6)15 (2.2)<0.0001
LVAD at first registration2,882 (8.7)48 (7.1)0.1476
Inotrope at first registration11,551 (34.7)156 (23.0)<0.0001
Hospitalization at first registration<0.0001
 ICU4,563 (30.1)66 (19.2)
 Non-ICU hospitalization2,667 (17.6)43 (12.5)
 Not hospitalized7,940 (52.3)234 (68.2)
Year of first listing2007 (2003–2010)2006 (2003–2010)0.2506
Predicted 90-day waitlist mortality, %3.6 (2.3 to 6.0)2.9 (2.3 to 4.7)<0.0001
Predicted 90-day post-HT mortality, %3.9 (3.5 to 5.7)3.8 (2.4 to 5.7)0.0010
Predicted 90-day HT benefit, %-0.6 (-2.2 to 1.4)-0.8 (-2.2 to 0.2)0.0003

Values are n (%) or median (interquartile range).

Significant p values are displayed in bold.

AGI = adjusted gross income; BMI = body mass index; ECMO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; HT = heart transplantation; IABP = intra-aortic balloon pump; ICU = intensive care unit; LVAD = left ventricular assist device; ML = multiple-listed; SES = socioeconomic status; SL = single-listed; UNOS = United Network for Organ Sharing.