Table 1

Patient Demographic, Clinical, and Functional Characteristics

NYHA I to II (n = 30)NYHA III to IV (n = 30)p Value
Age, yrs65 ± 1.363 ± 1.5NS
Men/women25/526/4NS
Body weight, kg82 ± 1.274.3 ± 1.6<0.01
BMI, kg/m228 ± 0.324 ± 0.5<0.01
Nutritional intake
 Energy, kcal/kg25.0 ± 0.5725.6 ± 0.33NS
 Carbohydrates, g/kg3.41 ± 0.073.58 ± 0.16NS
 Lipids, g/kg0.86 ± 0.030.82 ± 0.03NS
 Proteins, g/kg0.88 ± 0.020.96 ± 0.04NS
EtiologyIschemic, 66%Ischemic, 64%NS
Idiopathic, 34%Idiopathic, 36%NS
Duration of disease, months28 ± 2.230 ± 1.3NS
Comorbidities
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 Frequency, %33.326.6
 FEV1/FVC, %64.5 ± 0.549.2 ± 0.80.05
 Hypertension, %36.630.0<0.001
 Cholelithiasis, %6.610NS
 Gastroesophageal reflux disease, %10.013.3NS
Hemoglobin, g/dl14.0 ± 0.112.2 ± 0.2<0.01
Principal medications
 Bisoprolol, % patient treated (dose: mg)63.4% 5.0 ± 0.566.7% 3.8 ± 0.4NS
 Furosemide, % patient treated (dose: mg)100% 43.3 ± 3.6100% 133 ± 14.1<0.01
 Ramipril, % patient treated (dose: mg)100% 5.1 ± 0.4100% 1.9 ± 0.33NS
Serum creatinine, mg/dl0.9 ± 0.0010.9 ± 0.002NS
Albumin, g/dl3.6 ± 0.023.3 ± 0.03<0.01
Sodium/potassium, mmol/l140 ± 0.8/4.4 ± 0.2139 ± 0.5/4.3 ± 0.1NS
Total bilirubin, mg/dl0.7 ± 0.040.8 ± 0.04NS
AST, IU/l21.3 ± 0.923.1 ± 1.7NS
ALT, IU/l21.4 ± 1.220.8 ± 1.5NS
GGT, IU/l20.8 ± 1.429 ± 4.4NS
Alkaline phosphatase, IU/l98.4 ± 1.5103.2 ± 4.0NS
CRP, mg/dl nv: 0 to 0.5mg/dl6.0 ± 0.312.5 ± 0.6<0.001
LVEF, %39 ± 1.435.0 ± 1.2<0.01
RAP, mm Hg6.3 ± 0.412.6 ± 0.6<0.001
Cardiac index, l/min/m23.0 ± 0.072.6 ± 0.07<0.01
Mitral regurgitation
 Mild: 1+/2+1.5 ± 0.02<0.01
 Severe: 3+/4+3.5 ± 0.02

Values are mean ± SD, n, or %.

BMI = body mass index; GGT = gamma-glutamyltransferase; nv = normal value; NYHA = New York Heart Association; other abbreviations as in Table 1.