Table 1

Patient Characteristics

ControlHFpEFp Value
n131109
Sex, men37%43%0.31
Age at heart failure event, yrsNA74 ± 13
Age at death, yrs69 ± 1676 ± 130.002
Hypertension27%78%<0.001
Diabetes mellitus10%42%<0.001
Clinical diagnosis of coronary disease0%62%<0.001
Ejection fraction at heart failure event, %NA59 ± 9
Autopsy findings
 Weight, kg73 ± 2581 ± 270.02
 Height, cm165 ± 10166 ± 100.31
 Body mass index, kg/m226 ± 829 ± 90.02
 Body surface area, m21.8 ± 0.31.9 ± 0.30.02
 Heart weight, g343 ± 77541 ± 163<0.001
 Expected heart weight, %116 ± 21176 ± 50<0.001
 Gross left ventricular hypertrophy15%68%<0.001
 Gross right ventricular hypertrophy9%47%<0.001
 Gross infarct, old2%43%<0.001
 Gross infarct, new1%11%<0.001
 Gross fibrosis1%18%<0.001
 Left ventricular dilation3%39%<0.001
 Right ventricular dilation11%48%<0.001
 Atrial dilation7%55%<0.001
 Microscopic fibrosis38%57%0.005
 Microscopic hypertrophy14%31%0.002
 Microscopic infarct1%17%<0.001
 Coronary disease score6 ± 311 ± 4<0.001
 Fibrosis, WFDM, %7.6 ± 3.412.6 ± 8.9<0.001

Values are % or mean ± SD.

HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; NA = not applicable; WFDM = whole-field digital microscopy.