Table 1

Baseline Characteristics

All patientsFatigue 1
(n = 535)
Fatigue 2
(n = 1632)
Fatigue 3
(n = 1663)
p ValueDyspnea 1
(n = 292)
Dyspnea 2
(n = 1695)
Dyspnea 3
(n = 1843)
p Value
Age (yrs)73.0 ± 7.172.7 ± 6.972.7 ± 7.074.4 ± 7.30.0272.1 ± 6.872.5 ± 7.073.6 ± 7.2<0.01
Age ≥70 yrs2,557 (66.7%)351 (65.6%)1,057 (64.8%)1,149 (69.1%)0.22185 (63.4%)1,091 (64.4%)1,281 (69.5%)<0.01
Female810 (21.2%)80 (15%)306 (18.8%)424 (25.5%)<0.0142 (14.4%)320 (18.9%)448 (24.3%)<0.01
Race
 Caucasian3,768 (98.4%)529 (98.9%)1,612 (98.8%)1,627 (97.8%)288 (98.6%)1,672 (98.6%)1,808 (98.1%)
 Black12 (0.3%)2 (0.4%)4 (0.3%)6 (0.4%)1 (0.3%)5 (0.3%)6 (0.3%)
 Asian34 (0.9%)3 (0.6%)5 (0.3%)26 (1.56%)3 (1.0%)8 (0.5%)23 (1.3%)
 Other16 (0.4%)1 (0.2%)11 (0.7%)4 (0.2%)<0.010 (0%)10 (0.6%)6 (0.3%)0.18
NYHA III/IV2,001 (52.3%)93 (17.4%)529 (32.4%)1,379 (82.9%)<0.0117 (5.8%)400 (23.6%)1,584 (86.0%)<0.01
LVEF (%)28.6 ± 5.728.5 ± 5.828.8 ± 5.528.3 ± 5.80.0628.7 ± 5.728.8 ± 5.628.3 ± 5.80.04
Systolic BP, mm Hg128.5 ± 16.9129.8 ± 17.7129.6 ± 16.6127.1 ± 16.7<0.01129.5 ± 16.8129.8 ± 17.0127.3 ± 16.6<0.01
Heart rate, beats/min71.8 ± 11.369.3 ± 10.570.9 ± 11.473.4 ± 11.3<0.0168.3 ± 1070.6 ± 11.373.4 ± 11.3<0.01
BMI, kg/m226.9 ± 4.426.5 ± 427.1 ± 4.426.9 ± 4.40.0126.5 ± 427.0 ± 4.427.0 ± 4.50.29
BMI > median (26.4 kg/m2)1,900 (49.6%)250 (46.7%)839 (51.4%)811 (51.4%)0.05132 (45.2%)850 (50.1%)918 (49.8%)0.43
Current smoker349 (9.1%)67 (12.5%)140 (8.6%)142 (8.5%)0.0133 (11.3%)161 (9.5%)155 (8.4%)0.21
Medical history
 MI2,311 (60.3%)289 (54.0%)987 (59.9%)1,044 (62.8%)<0.01149 (51.0%)1,009 (59.5%)1,153 (62.6%)<0.01
 Angina pectoris2,728 (71.2%)313 (58.5%)1,167 (71.5%)1,248 (75.1%)<0.01162 (55.5%)1,176 (69.4%)1,390 (75.4%)<0.01
 CABG694 (20.0%)94 (19.8%)323 (22.0%)277 (18.1%)0.0350 (18.9%)331 (21.8%)313 (18.5%)0.06
 PCI/PTCA1,052 (27.5%)72 (13.5%)221 (13.5%)187 (11.2%)0.1137 (12.7%)227 (13.4%)216 (11.7%)0.32
 Hypertension2,308 (60.3%)261 (48.8%)976 (59.8%)1,071 (64.4%)<0.01142 (48.6%)1,008 (59.5%)1,158 (62.8%)<0.01
 Diabetes mellitus1,109 (29.0%)120 (22.4%)452 (27.7%)537 (32.3%)<0.0160 (20.6%)448 (26.4%)601 (32.6%)<0.01
 Baseline AF/F895 (23.4%)89 (16.6%)345 (21.1%)461 (27.7%)<0.0139 (13.4%)350 (20.7%)506 (27.5%)<0.01
 Stroke478 (12.5%)50 (9.4%)175 (10.7%)253 (15.2%)<0.0126 (8.9%)197 (11.6%)255 (13.8%)0.02
 Pacemaker454 (11.9%)60 (11.2%)188 (11.5%)206 (12.4%)0.6622 (7.5%)182 (10.7%)250 (13.6%)<0.01
 ICD122 (3.2%)24 (4.5%)50 (3.1%)48 (2.9%)0.176 (2.1%)59 (3.5%)57 (3.1%)0.42
Laboratory measurements
 Cholesterol, mmol/l5.3 ± 1.15.4 ± 1.05.4 ± 1.05.3 ± 1.10.015.4 ± 1.05.4 ± 1.05.3 ± 1.1<0.01
 ApoB:ApoA-1 ratio0.87 ± 0.250.87 ± 0.230.86 ± 0.240.88 ± 0.260.060.86 ± 0.230.87 ± 0.240.88 ± 0.260.53
 ApoB1.27 ± 0.301.28 ± 0.291.27 ± 0.291.26 ± 0.310.501.26 ± 0.271.28 ± 0.291.26 ± 0.310.05
 ApoA-11.50 ± 0.281.51 ± 0.281.51 ± 0.281.47 ± 0.28<0.011.51 ± 0.261.51 ± 0.271.48 ± 0.290.01
 Triglycerides, mmol/l2.0 ± 1.32.0 ± 1.22.0 ± 1.32.0 ± 1.30.971.9 ± 1.02.0 ± 1.32.0 ± 1.40.22
 Serum creatinine, μmol/l116.8 ± 28.3115.4 ± 27.0116.0 ± 27.9118.0 ± 29.10.05114.6 ± 26.0115.5 ± 28.0118.3 ± 29.0<0.01
 Estimated GFR, ml/min/1.73 m255.8 ± 15.457.2 ± 15.256.6 ± 15.254.7 ± 15.5<0.0157.5 ± 14.557.0 ± 15.454.5 ± 15.4<0.01
 NT-proBNP, pmol/l (median)193.8140.5178.3232.2<0.01135.6168.0234.6<0.01
 hs-CRP, mg/l (median)3.52.93.33.90.022.43.33.9<0.01
Medication
 Loop diuretic agent2,944 (76.9%)356 (66.5%)1,206 (73.9%)1,382 (83.1%)<0.01196 (67.1%)1,220 (72.0%)1,528 (82.9%)<0.01
 Loop or thiazide diuretic agent3,364 (87.8%)427 (79.8%)1,412 (86.5%)1,525 (91.7%)<0.01225 (77.1%)1,448 (85.4%)1,691 (91.8%)<0.01
 ACE inhibitor3,051 (79.7%)427 (79.8%)1,290 (79.0%)1,334 (80.2%)0.70234 (80.1%)1,340 (79.1%)1,477 (80.1%)0.71
 ACE inhibitor or ARB3,548 (92.6%)505 (94.4%)1,515 (92.8%)1,528 (91.9%)0.14272 (93.2%)1,579 (93.2%)1,697 (92.1%)0.44
 Beta-blocker2,847 (74.3%)396 (74.0%)1,235 (75.7%)1,216 (73.1%)0.24221 (75.7%)1,284 (75.8%)1,342 (72.8%)0.12
 Digitalis glycoside1,305 (34.1%)125 (23.4%)522 (32.0%)658 (39.6%)<0.0164 (21.9%)519 (30.6%)722 (39.2%)<0.01
 Antiarrhythmic therapy479 (12.5%)68 (12.7%)184 (11.27%)227 (13.7%)0.1239 (13.4%)201 (11.9%)239 (13.0%)0.55
 Antiplatelet therapy2,209 (57.7%)315 (58.9%)949 (58.2%)945 (56.8%)0.62176 (60.3%)993 (58.6%)1,040 (56.4%)0.28
 Anticoagulant therapy1,433 (37.4%)203 (37.9%)609 (37.3%)621 (37.3%)0.96111 (38.0%)627 (37.0%)695 (37.7%)0.89
 Antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy3,465 (90.5%)493 (92.2%)1,476 (90.4%)1,496 (90.0%)0.32275 (94.2%)1,531 (90.3%)1,659 (90.0%)0.08

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

ACE = angiotensin converting enzyme; AF/F = atrial fibrillation/flutter; ICD = implanted cardioverter-defibrillator; ApoA = apolipoprotein A; ApoB = apolipoprotein B; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; CABG = coronary artery bypass graft; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; hs-CRP = high sensitive C-reactive protein; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NT-proBNP = N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide; NYHA = New York Heart Association; PCI/PTCA = percutaneous coronary intervention/percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

  • To convert to ng/l multiply by 8.457.