Table 2

Baseline Characteristics of the Study Population Stratified by NICM Etiology

NICM Etiologyp Value
Hypertension
(n = 28,141)
Idiopathic
(n = 17,808)
Other
(n = 7,523)
Substance Abuse
(n = 2,653)
Chemotherapy
(n = 721)
Familial
(n = 556)
Viral
(n = 447)
Post-Partum
(n = 209)
Demographics
 Age, yrs73 (59–84)73 (59–84)73 (59–84)52 (45–61)66 (56–78)62 (49–77.5)50 (40–65)32 (25–38)<0.001
 Race/ethnicity<0.001
 White15,406 (54.8)12,093 (67.9)5,078 (67.5)953 (35.9)499 (69.2)343 (61.7)225 (50.3)56 (26.8)
 Black8,347 (29.7)3,611 (20.3)1,485 (19.7)1,291 (48.7)154 (21.4)147 (26.4)141 (31.5)130 (62.2)
 Hispanic2,783 (9.9)1,351 (7.6)527 (7.0)230 (8.7)39 (5.4)45 (8.1)46 (10.3)10 (4.8)
 Other1,381 (4.9)683 (3.8)360 (4.8)139 (5.2)26 (3.6)10 (1.8)31 (6.9)13 (6.2)
 Women16,530 (58.7)10,297 (57.8)4,289 (57.0)552 (20.8)488 (67.7)277 (49.8)187 (41.8)209 (100)<0.001
 Insurance<0.001
 Medicare14,174 (50.4)8,767 (49.2)4,040 (53.7)555 (20.9)316 (43.8)187 (33.6)113 (25.3)23 (11.0)
 Medicaid2,753 (9.8)1,748 (9.8)721 (9.6)536 (20.2)74 (10.3)86 (15.5)90 (20.1)76 (36.4)
 Other7,277 (25.9)5,128 (28.8)1,954 (26.0)620 (23.4)271 (37.6)191 (34.4)155 (34.7)76 (36.7)
 None2,067 (7.4)1,006 (5.7)349 (4.6)716 (27.0)22 (3.1)60 (10.8)52 (11.6)18 (8.6)
Medical history
 COPD/asthma7,641 (27.7)5,011 (28.6)2,193 (29.5)743 (29.2)170 (24.2)149 (27.2)106 (24.5)41 (20.0)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation8,314 (30.1)5,896 (33.7)2,901 (39.1)494 (19.4)158 (22.5)146 (26.6)88 (20.4)8 (3.9)<0.001
 Diabetes10,976 (39.7)6,515 (37.2)2,542 (34.2)564 (22.1)184 (26.2)216 (39.4)116 (26.9)34 (16.6)<0.001
 Hypertension25,504 (92.3)11,957 (68.3)4,183 (56.3)1,775 (69.7)419 (59.6)365 (66.6)216 (50.0)114 (55.6)<0.001
 Hyperlipidemia9,888 (35.8)5,734 (32.8)2,340 (31.5)590 (23.2)169 (24.0)165 (30.1)103 (23.8)16 (7.8)<0.001
 Stroke/TIA3,375 (12.2)2,103 (12.0)903 (12.2)162 (6.4)42 (6.0)62 (11.3)21 (4.9)13 (6.3)<0.001
 PVD1,846 (6.7)1,259 (7.2)522 (7.0)95 (3.7)31 (4.4)35 (6.4)12 (2.8)4 (2.0)<0.001
 Renal insufficiency5,550 (20.1)2,561 (14.6)1,405 (18.9)345 (13.6)89 (12.7)82 (15.0)59 (13.7)10 (4.9)<0.001
 Anemia5,099 (18.5)3,066 (17.5)1,483 (20.0)339 (13.3)180 (25.6)62 (11.3)62 (14.4)40 (19.5)<0.001
 Smoking4,435 (15.8)2,900 (16.3)1,103 (14.7)1,656 (62.4)108 (15.0)134 (24.1)138 (30.9)76 (36.4)<0.001
Admission characteristics
 SBP, mm Hg147 (127–171)138 (119–159)132 (114–151)138 (118–160)128 (109–146)134 (116–157)124 (109–145)124 (108–145)<0.001
 Heart rate, beats/min85 (72–100)86 (73–101)86 (72–100)96 (82–110)92 (79–107)86 (74–100)95 (77-109)99 (85–111)<0.001
 BMI, kg/m229 (24–36)29 (24–36)28 (24–35)28 (24–34)27 (23–32)30 (24–37)28 (24–35)32 (26–38)<0.001
 Ejection fraction, %50 (30–59)45 (25–55)48 (28–57)25 (16–40)30 (20–50)40 (25–55)23 (15–35)22 (16–30)<0.001
 Ejection fraction <40%10,099 (35.9)7,212 (40.5)72,838 (37.7)1,925 (72.6)426 (59.1)262 (47.1)344 (77.0)174 (83.3)<0.001
 BNP, pg/dl694 (300–1,490)697 (346–1,440)768 (378–1,540)1,010 (374–2,249)834 (171–1,820)667 (317–1,395)878 (401–1,549)690 (289–1,823)<0.001
 Creatinine, mg/dl1.3 (1.0–1.8)1.2 (0.9–1.7)1.2 (0.9–1.7)1.2 (1.0–1.6)1.1 (0.8–1.5)1.2 (0.9–1.5)1.2 (0.9–1.6)0.9 (0.7–1.1)<0.001
Hospital characteristics
 Rural1,205 (4.3)945 (5.3)423 (5.6)43 (1.6)34 (4.7)47 (8.5)7 (1.6)4 (1.9)<0.001
 Region<0.001
 West9,965 (35.4)2,106 (11.8)1,353 (18.0)726 (27.4)92 (12.8)97 (17.5)114 (25.5)31 (14.8)
 South7,967 (28.3)7,138 (40.1)2,970 (39.5)619 (23.3)219 (30.4)331 (59.5)137 (30.7)86 (41.2)
 Midwest4,520 (16.1)5,504 (30.9)1,597 (21.2)505 (19.0)184 (25.5)69 (12.4)99 (22.2)45 (21.5)
 Northeast5,689 (20.2)3,060 (17.2)1,603 (21.3)803 (30.3)226 (31.4)59 (10.6)97 (21.7)47 (22.5)
 Academic hospitals17,205 (61.1)12,103 (68.0)4,675 (62.1)2,016 (76.0)517 (71.7)231 (41.6)306 (68.5)175 (83.7)<0.001
 Number of beds372 (244–559)431 (300–566)372 (245–593)425 (342–575)438 (290–593)395 (225–610)431 (328–593)555 (410–656)<0.001

Values are median (interquartile range) or n (%).

Abbreviations as in Table 1.