Table 1

Patient Demographics

Demographic CharacteristicsAll Patients
(N = 60)
HFrEF
(n = 36)
HFpEF
(n = 24)
Age, yrs70 (60–80)75 (56–80)70 (63–79)
Female26 (43.3)9 (25)17 (70.8)
Ethnicity
 African American9 (15)5 (13.9)4 (16.7)
 Hispanic6 (10)2 (5.6)4 (16.7)
 Caucasian45 (75)29 (80.6)16 (66.7)
Median ejection fraction, %25 (20–31)55 (55–60)
NYHA functional class
 I000
 II7 (11.7)4 (11.1)3 (12.5)
 III35 (58.3)21 (58.3)14 (58.3)
 IV12 (20)9 (25)3 (12.5)
 Unknown6 (10)2 (5.5)4 (16.7)
Comorbidities
 Atrial fibrillation29 (48.3)18 (50)11 (45.8)
 Chronic kidney disease28 (46.7)18 (50)10 (41.7)
 Diabetes mellitus31 (51.7)17 (47.2)14 (58.3)
 Hypertension46 (76.7)26 (72.2)20 (83.3)
 Pulmonary hypertension6 (10)1 (2.8)5 (20.8)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease12 (20)3 (8.3)9 (37.5)
 Coronary artery disease31 (51.7)20 (55.5)11 (45.8)
Loop diuretic
 Torsemide38 (63.3)24 (66.7)14 (58.3)
 Furosemide21 (35.0)12 (33.3)9 (37.5)
 No loop diuretic1 (1.7)01 (4.2)
 Loop diuretic dose, mg/dl240 (80–800)280 (95–800)240 (80–560)
Therapies
 Thiazide diuretic13 (21.7)8 (22.2)5 (20.1)
 ACE inhibitor/ARB27 (45)17 (47.2)10 (41.7)
 Aldosterone antagonist22 (36.7)15 (41.7)7 (29.2)
 Beta-blocker48 (80)33 (91.7)15 (62.5)
 Digoxin11 (18.3)10 (27.8)1 (4.2)
 Isosorbide8 (13.3)6 (16.7)2 (8.3)
 Hydralazine3 (5)3 (8.3)0
 ICD31 (51.7)28 (77.8)3 (12.5)
 CRT16 (26.7)17 (47.2)0
Laboratory values
 Serum sodium, mmol/l138 (135–140)138 (134–140)139 (137–140)
 Blood urea nitrogen, mg/dl33 (23–44)34 (27–46)28 (22–39)
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl1.44 (1.43–3.95)1.59 (1.23–2.02)1.29 (1.04–1.63)
 NT-proBNP, pg/ml3,533 (1,617–6,297)4,694 (2,714–6,699)1,545 (562–3,335)
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg124 (112–140)117 (108–134)132 (122–144)
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg68 (60–77)68 (60–75)69 (62–78)

Values are median (interquartile range) or n (%).

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; CRT = cardiac resynchronization therapy; HFpEF = heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF = heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; ICD = implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; NT-proBNP = N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide; NYHA = New York Heart Association.

  • Expressed as milligrams of furosemide or equivalent (oral furosemide 80 mg = intravenous furosemide 40 mg = torsemide 20 mg = bumetanide 1 mg).