Table 4

Filter Effects on Biomarkers During Diesel Exhaust Exposure

Clean AirAir Pollution
(∼300 μg/m3)
Filtered Pollution
Hemoglobin, g/dl
 Patients with HF13.9 ± 0.413.8 ± 0.413.7 ± 0.4
 Control subjects14.3 ± 0.414.2 ± 0.413.1 ± 1.3
Leukocytes, x109 cells/l
 Patients with HF7.8 ± 0.57.8 ± 0.56.9 ± 0.3
 Control subjects6.2 ± 0.46.1 ± 0.46.2 ± 0.3
Neutrophils, x109 cells/l
 Patients with HF5.1 ± 0.45.3 ± 0.54.6 ± 0.3
 Control subjects3.9 ± 0.33.8 ± 0.23.8 ± 0.2
Lymphocytes, x109 cells/l
 Patients with HF1.8 ± 0.11.8 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.1
 Control subjects1.7 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.11.8 ± 0.1
Monocytes, x109 cells/l
 Patients with HF0.4 ± 0.030.4 ± 0.050.3 ± 0.02
 Control subjects0.3 ± 0.030.3 ± 0.040.3 ± 0.04
Platelets, x109 cells/l
 Patients with HF228.1 ± 17.2246.7 ± 10.6240.5 ± 14.1
 Control subjects240.8 ± 9.5243.1 ± 12.0239.5 ± 9.1
Troponin I, ng/ml
 Patients with HF0.011 [0 to 0.023]0.009 [0 to 0.027]0.001 [0 to 0.020]
 Control subjects000
C-reactive protein, mg/l
 Patients with HF1.55 [0.8 to 3.3]1.95 [0.9 to 4.0]1.99 [1.0 to 4.0]
 Control subjects0.76 [0.4 to 1.0]1.10 [0.5 to 1.5]0.68 [0.5 to 1.5]
BNP, pg/ml
 Patients with HF47.0 [17.3 to 118.0]66.5 [26.5 to 155.5]44.0 [20.0 to 110.0]
 Control subjects10.5 [9.3 to 12.8]11.5 [6.3 to 15.0]9.5 [6.3 to 10.0]
Norepinephrine, pg/ml
 Patients with HF720 ± 89647 ± 131703 ± 128
 Control subjects274 ± 47611 ± 47403 ± 45
Prothrombin time, s
 Patients with HF17.2 ± 1.716.9 ± 1.717.3 ± 1.6
 Control subjects14.7 ± 0.514.4 ± 0.414.8 ± 0.4
International normalized ratio
 Patients with HF1.0 [1.0 to 1.2]1.0 [1.0 to 1.0]1.1 [1.0 to 1.2]
 Control subjects1.0 [0.9 to 1.1]1.0 [1.0 to 1.1]1.0 [1.0 to 1.1]
Partial thromboplastin time, s
 Patients with HF28 ± 2.127 ± 2.530 ± 1.3
 Control subjects29 ± 1.029 ± 0.730 ± 1.1

Values are mean ± SD and were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures. Nonnormal data values are reported as the median (interquartile range), and Friedman’s test was used to detect differences across multiple sessions. p > 0.050 for all comparisons.

BNP = B-type natriuretic peptide.

  • Differences between the control group and the heart failure (HF) group are statistically significant (p < 0.05).