Table 4

Association of Physician Continuity to Time to Death or Repeat ED Visit

Base Analysis—Continuity in Month 1 Captured as Time-Dependent Variable, All Patients Included
Observation TimeContinuity in Month 1Proportion With EventEvents Per 100 PYsUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
3 monthsNo visits78.2%6951.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
All visits with unfamiliar physician(s)47.2%2940.72 (0.65–0.79)0.81 (0.73–0.89)
≥1 visit with familiar physician(s)45.4%2820.73 (0.69–0.77)0.75 (0.71–0.80)
6 monthsNo visits84.7%5401.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
All visits with unfamiliar physician(s)58.7%2140.70 (0.64–0.76)0.79 (0.72–0.86)
≥1 visit with familiar physician(s)60.8%2210.76 (0.72–0.80)0.78 (0.73–0.82)
12 monthsNo visits90.8%4201.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
All visits with unfamiliar physician(s)73.2%1650.71 (0.66–0.77)0.80 (0.74–0.87)
≥1 visit with familiar physician(s)75.8%1760.78 (0.74–0.82)0.78 (0.74–0.83)
Sensitivity Analysis—Continuity Captured as Time-Dependent Variable Throughout Entire Duration of Observation, Excluding Patients Without Outpatient Visits
Observation TimeContinuity Throughout Observation TimeProportion With EventEvents Per 100 PYsUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
3 monthsOutpatient visits but none with familiar physician48.4%2991.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
≥1 visit with familiar physician(s)0.90 (0.81–0.99)
<50% of visits with familiar physician(s)27.9%2391.07 (0.89–1.28)0.94 (0.78–1.13)
50%–99% of visits with familiar physician(s)31.3%2461.06 (0.95–1.19)0.91 (0.80–1.03)
All visits with familiar physician(s)53.5%3101.02 (0.93–1.13)0.89 (0.81–0.99)
6 monthsOutpatient visits, but none with familiar physician61.2%2251.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
≥1 visit with familiar physician(s)0.91 (0.83–0.99)
<50% of visits with familiar physician(s)39.6%1641.03 (0.89–1.18)0.89 (0.77–1.03)
50%–99% of visits with familiar physician(s)44.8%1801.08 (0.98–1.18)0.90 (0.81–0.996)
All visits with familiar physician(s)74.3%2571.06 (0.98–1.16)0.92 (0.84–1.00)
12 monthsOutpatient visits but none with familiar physician75.4%1731.00 (referent)1.00 (referent)
≥1 visit with familiar physician(s)0.92 (0.84–0.997)
<50% of visits with familiar physician(s)56.9%1241.03 (0.92–1.16)0.91 (0.80–1.02)
50%–99% of visits with familiar physician(s)63.0%1401.10 (1.01–1.19)0.90 (0.82–0.99)
All visits with familiar physician(s)90.6%2251.09 (1.01–1.19)0.93 (0.85–1.01)

Abbreviations as in Tables 1 to 3.

  • Covariates adjusted for same as in Table 3.

  • See Table 3 Footnote.