Table 3

HOMA-IR Levels and Risk of Incident HF

HOMA-IRModel 1
HR (95% CI)
p ValueModel 2
HR (95% CI)
p Value
1.001.34 (1.12–1.61)0.0010.95 (0.79–1.14)0.564
1.251.53 (1.32–1.78)<0.0011.13 (0.97–1.33)0.115
1.501.58 (1.39–1.80)<0.0011.15 (1.00–1.32)0.046
1.751.55 (1.38–1.74)<0.0011.11 (0.98–1.26)0.094
2.001.61 (1.44–1.79)<0.0011.15 (1.02–1.30)0.022
2.251.67 (1.50–1.85)<0.0011.17 (1.04–1.31)0.010
2.501.58 (1.43–1.76)<0.0011.10 (0.97–1.23)0.127
2.751.55 (1.40–1.72)<0.0011.05 (0.93–1.18)0.465
3.001.51 (1.35–1.68)<0.0011.01 (0.89–1.14)0.925

HF = heart failure; HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; HR = hazard ratio; other abbreviations as in Table 2.

  • Model 1 adjusted for age and female sex.

  • Model 2 adjusted for age, female sex, race, BMI, smoking, hypertension, study center, and myocardial infarction as time-varying covariate.