Table 4

Cox Multivariate Model for All-Cause Mortality

VariableHazard Ratio (CI)p Value
Infection, extraction, reimplantation1.27 (0.88–1.83)0.21
Male1.44 (1.10–1.90)0.008
Ischemic cardiomyopathy1.80 (1.42–2.28)<0.001
Creatinine, mg/dl1.42 (1.22–1.60)<0.001
Hemoglobin, g/dl0.92 (0.87–0.97)0.002
ACE inhibitor or ARB0.70 (0.55–0.88)0.003
Diuretic use2.1 (1.54–2.77)<0.001

CI = confidence interval; other abbreviations as in Table 1.

  • Analysis stratified by beta-blocker use as this variable was in violation of the Cox model assumptions.

  • As a time varying covariate accounting for time from left ventricular lead implant to extraction.