Author + information
- Received May 10, 2017
- Revision received August 25, 2017
- Accepted August 31, 2017
- Published online November 17, 2017.
- Niels Grote Beverborg, MD,
- Dirk J. van Veldhuisen, MD, PhD and
- Peter van der Meer, MD, PhD∗ ()
- Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Peter van der Meer, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, the Netherlands.
One-third of all patients with heart failure have anemia, and its presence is associated with more symptoms, increased rates of hospitalization, and mortality. The etiology of anemia is multifactorial, complex, and varies between patients. The most important factors leading to anemia in heart failure are inadequate erythropoietin production resulting from renal failure, intrinsic bone marrow defects, medication use, and nutritional deficiencies such as iron deficiency. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been proven to successfully correct hemoglobin levels, albeit without significant improvement in clinical outcome. On the contrary, the use of ESAs has led to increased rates of thromboembolic events and ischemic stroke. This use of ESAs for the treatment of anemia in heart failure, therefore, cannot be recommended. In addition, these results question whether anemia is a therapeutic target or merely a marker of disease severity. Other therapies are being studied and include agents targeting the erythropoietin receptor, hepcidin pathway, or iron availability. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of anemia in heart failure, explanations why investigated therapies might not have led to the desired results, and discussions of promising future therapies.
The University Medical Center of Groningen has received an unrestricted grant from Vifor Pharma. Dr. van Veldhuisen has received board membership fees and travel expenses from Vifor Pharma. Dr. van der Meer has received consultancy fees from Vifor Pharma. Dr. Grote Beverborg has reported that he has no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received May 10, 2017.
- Revision received August 25, 2017.
- Accepted August 31, 2017.
- 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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