Author + information
- Received November 11, 2017
- Revision received February 23, 2018
- Accepted March 6, 2018
- Published online July 30, 2018.
- Yogesh N.V. Reddy, MDa,
- Thomas P. Olson, MS, PhDa,
- Masaru Obokata, MD, PhDa,
- Vojtech Melenovsky, MD, PhDb and
- Barry A. Borlaug, MDa,∗ ()
- aDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
- bInstitute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Barry A. Borlaug, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905.
Objectives This study sought to define the invasive hemodynamic correlates of peak oxygen consumption (Vo2) in both supine and upright exercise in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and evaluate its diagnostic role as a method to discriminate HFpEF from noncardiac etiologies of dyspnea (NCD).
Background Peak Vo2 is depressed in patients with HFpEF. The hemodynamic correlates of reduced peak Vo2 and its role in the clinical evaluation of HFpEF are unclear.
Methods Consecutive patients with dyspnea and normal EF (N = 206) undergoing both noninvasive upright and invasive supine cardiopulmonary exercise testing were examined. Patients with invasively verified HFpEF were compared with those with NCD.
Results Compared with NCD (n = 72), HFpEF patients (n = 134) displayed lower peak Vo2 during upright and supine exercise. Left heart filling pressures during exercise were inversely correlated with peak Vo2 in HFpEF, even after accounting for known determinants of O2 transport according to the Fick principle. Very low upright peak Vo2 (<14 ml/kg/min) discriminated HFpEF from NCD with excellent specificity (91%) but poor sensitivity (50%). Preserved peak Vo2 (>20 ml/kg/min) excluded HFpEF with high sensitivity (90%) but had poor specificity (49%). Intermediate peak Vo2 cutoff points were associated with substantial overlap between cases and NCD.
Conclusions Elevated cardiac filling pressure during exercise is independently correlated with reduced exercise capacity in HFpEF, irrespective of body position, emphasizing its importance as a novel therapeutic target. Noninvasive cardiopulmonary testing discriminates HFpEF and NCD at high and low values, but additional testing is required for patients with intermediate peak Vo2.
Dr. Reddy is supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant T32 HL007111. Dr. Borlaug is supported by NIH grants RO1 HL128526, R01 HL 126638, U01 HL125205, and U10 HL110262. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received November 11, 2017.
- Revision received February 23, 2018.
- Accepted March 6, 2018.
- 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation