Author + information
- Received July 6, 2017
- Revision received September 5, 2017
- Accepted September 10, 2017
- Published online February 26, 2018.
- aINECO Neurociencias, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina
- bDuke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Christopher B. Granger, Duke University Medical Center, PO Box 17969, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
Heart failure (HF) complicating myocardial infarction (MI) is common and may be present at admission or develop during the hospitalization. Among patients with MI, there is a strong relationship between degree of HF and mortality. The optimal management of the patient with HF complicating MI varies according to time since the onset of infarction. Medical therapy for HF after MI includes early (within 24 h) initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and early (within 7 days) use of aldosterone antagonists. Alternatively, in patients with MI and ongoing HF, early use (<24 h) of beta-blockers is associated with an increased risk of cardiogenic shock and death. Long-term beta-blocker use after MI is associated with a reduced risk of reinfarction and death. Thus, it is critical to frequently re-evaluate beta-blocker eligibility among patients after MI with HF. Cardiogenic shock is an extreme presentation of HF after MI and is a leading cause of death in the MI setting. The only therapy proven to reduce mortality for patients with cardiogenic shock is early revascularization. Several studies are examining new approaches to mitigate the occurrence and adverse impact of post-MI HF. These studies are testing drugs for HF and diabetes and are evaluating mechanical support devices to bridge patients to recovery or transplantation.
Dr. Granger has received funding from Abbvie, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Boston Scientific, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Daiichi-Sankyo, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Hoffmann-La Roche, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, The Medicines Company, Medtronic Foundation, Medtronic Inc., Novartis, Sirtex, Pfizer, Verseon, and Armetheon. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the content of this paper to disclose.
- Received July 6, 2017.
- Revision received September 5, 2017.
- Accepted September 10, 2017.
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