Author + information
- Received November 18, 2016
- Accepted December 8, 2016
- Published online March 27, 2017.
- Lorenz Koller, MD,
- Stefan Stojkovic, MD, PhD,
- Bernhard Richter, MD,
- Patrick Sulzgruber, MD,
- Christos Potolidis, MD,
- Florian Liebhart, MD,
- Deddo Mörtl, MD,
- Rudolf Berger, MD,
- Georg Goliasch, MD, PhD,
- Johann Wojta, PhD,
- Martin Hülsmann, MD and
- Alexander Niessner, MD∗ ()
- Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Alexander Niessner, Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
Objectives This study investigated the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).
Background SuPAR originates from proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound receptor from activated immune and endothelial cells and reflects the level of immune activation. As inflammation plays a crucial role in the complex pathophysiology of CHF, we hypothesized that suPAR might be a suitable prognostic biomarker in patients with CHF.
Methods SuPAR levels were determined in 319 patients with CHF admitted to our outpatient department for heart failure and in a second cohort consisting of 346 patients with CHF, for validation.
Results During a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, 119 patients (37.3%) died. SuPAR was a strong predictor of mortality with a crude hazard ratio (HR) per increase of 1 SD (HR per 1 SD) of 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63 to 2.35; p < 0.001) in univariate analysis and remained significant after comprehensive multivariate adjustment with an adjusted HR per 1 SD of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.83; p = 0.026). SuPAR added prognostic value beyond the multivariate model indicated by improvements in C-statistics (area under the curve: 0.72 vs 0.74, respectively; p = 0.02), the category-free net reclassification index (24.9%; p = 0.032), and the integrated discrimination improvement (0.011; p = 0.05). Validation in the second cohort yielded consistent results.
Conclusions SuPAR is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in patients with CHF, potentially suitable to refine risk assessment in this vulnerable group of patients. Our results emphasize the impact of immune activation on survival in patients with CHF.
This work was supported by the Association for the Promotion of Research on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology and the Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research. Dr. Koller is recipient of a DOC fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (24346).
The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to declare.
- Received November 18, 2016.
- Accepted December 8, 2016.
- 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation