Author + information
- Received June 14, 2016
- Revision received September 7, 2016
- Accepted September 11, 2016
- Published online January 30, 2017.
- Jacqueline Baras Shreibati, MD, MSa,∗ (, )
- Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert, PhDb,
- Dipanjan Banerjee, MD, MSa,
- Douglas K. Owens, MD, MSb,c and
- Mark A. Hlatky, MDa
- aDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
- bCenter for Health Policy and Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California
- cVeterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Jacqueline Baras Shreibati, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, HRP Redwood Building, T150A, 150 Governor’s Lane, Stanford, California 94305-5405.
Objectives This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as destination therapy in ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure.
Background LVADs improve survival and quality of life in inotrope-dependent heart failure, but data are limited as to their value in less severely ill patients.
Methods We determined costs of care among Medicare beneficiaries before and after LVAD implantation from 2009 to 2010. We used these costs and efficacy data from published studies in a Markov model to project the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of destination LVAD therapy compared with that of medical management. We discounted costs and benefits at 3% annually and report costs as 2016 U.S. dollars.
Results The mean cost of LVAD implantation was $175,420. The mean cost of readmission was lower before LVAD than after ($12,377 vs. $19,465, respectively; p < 0.001), while monthly outpatient costs were similar ($3,364 vs. $2,974, respectively; p = 0.54). In the lifetime simulation model, LVAD increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (4.41 vs. 2.67, respectively), readmissions (13.03 vs. 6.35, respectively), and costs ($726,200 vs. $361,800, respectively) compared with medical management, yielding an ICER of $209,400 per QALY gained and $597,400 per life-year gained. These results were sensitive to LVAD readmission rates and outpatient care costs; the ICER would be $86,900 if these parameters were 50% lower.
Conclusions LVADs in non–inotrope-dependent heart failure patients improved quality of life but substantially increased lifetime costs because of frequent readmissions and costly follow-up care. LVADs may provide good value if outpatient costs and adverse events can be reduced.
Dr. Banerjee has received research support and consulting fees from HeartWare and Thoratec Corp. Dr. Owens has received consulting fees from Zoll, Inc. Dr. Hlatky has received research support from HeartFlow, Inc.; and consulting fees from Acumen, Inc. and Jansson. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received June 14, 2016.
- Revision received September 7, 2016.
- Accepted September 11, 2016.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation