Autonomic Dysfunction and Heart Failure Pathogenesis
(Lower left) Schematic demonstrating the synergistic relationships between autonomic imbalance, neurohormonal activation, and the pathogenesis of heart failure. (Lower right) Schematic highlighting the interactions between the central nervous system, heart, and kidneys. Anatomic sites of autonomic modulation are highlighted. ATII = angiotensin II; AV = atrioventricular; HR = heart rate; LV = left ventricular; NO = nitric oxide; PNS = parasympathetic nervous system; RAAS = renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; SA = sinoatrial; SNS = sympathetic nervous system.