|Marker (Method)||First Author ( Ref. #)||Population||Outcome||Predictive Properties|
HR (95% CI)
|E/A (severity of DD) (echocardiography)||Persson et al. (51)||293 HF patients with LVEF >40% participating in CHARMES||Composite CV mortality or HF admission||Moderate or severe DD|
|e’ (echocardiography)||Wang et al. (71)||174 hypertensive individuals with LVH||Cardiac mortality||0.49 (0.32–0.76)†|
|LV mass‡ (echocardiography)||Zile et al. (52)||745 HF patients with LVEF ≥45% participating in I-PRESERVE||All-cause mortality or hospitalization for worsening HF, MI, stroke, unstable angina, or ventricular or atrial dysrhythmia||1.019 (1.009–1.029)§|
|LV mass/volume (echocardiography)||1.296 (1.074–1.564) §|
|Enlarged LA|| (echocardiography)||1.470 (1.029–2.101) §|
|LAD¶ (echocardiography)||Rossi et al. (69)||183 HF patients with LVEF >45%||All-cause mortality||2.45 (1.12–5.41)#|
|Diastolic wall stress∗∗ (echocardiography)||Ohtani et al. (70)||327 HF patients with LVEF ≥50%||Composite CV mortality or HF admission||1.03 (1.01–1.06)††|
|Natriuretic peptides (blood sample analysis)||Grewal et al. (68)||181 HF patients with LVEF >40% participating in CHARMES||Composite CV mortality or HF admission or MI or stroke||NT-proBNP >300 pg/ml|
NT-proBNP >600 pg/ml
BNP >100 pg/ml
CHARMES = CHARM Echocardiographic Substudy; CI = confidence interval; CV = cardiovascular; DD = diastolic dysfunction; HR = hazard ratio; I-PRESERVE = Irbesartan in Heart Failure With Preserved Systolic Function; LVH = left ventricular hypertrophy; MI; myocardial infarction.
↵∗ After adjustment for age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, previous heart failure (HF) admission, and treatment arm.
↵† After adjustment for age, and interventricular septal thickness in diastole, LVEF, peak velocity during systole, peak velocity during late diastole, peak E-wave velocity to peak velocity during early diastole ratio (E/Em), and pseudonormal diastolic filling pattern or restrictive diastolic filling pattern.
↵‡ Indexed to height2.7.
↵§ After adjustment for log N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), age, diabetes mellitus, hospitalization for worsening HF within 6 months preceding randomization, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, neutrophils, and LVEF.
↵|| Mildly enlarged left atrium (LA) if LA area was 20 to 30 cm2 and moderately to severely enlarged LA if LA area was >31 cm2.
↵¶ LA diameter >5 cm used to define LA enlargement.
↵# After adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic parameters.
↵∗∗ Diastolic wall stress was defined as the ratio of the posterior wall thickness at end-systole minus the posterior wall thickness at end-diastole to the posterior wall thickness at end-systole.
↵†† After adjustment for age, sex, echocardiographic variables, and log B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP).